main.c 24.7 KB
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/*
 *  linux/init/main.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
 *
 *  GK 2/5/95  -  Changed to support mounting root fs via NFS
 *  Added initrd & change_root: Werner Almesberger & Hans Lermen, Feb '96
 *  Moan early if gcc is old, avoiding bogus kernels - Paul Gortmaker, May '96
 *  Simplified starting of init:  Michael A. Griffith <grif@acm.org> 
 */

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#define DEBUG		/* Enable initcall_debug */

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#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
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#include <linux/stackprotector.h>
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#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/ctype.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/ioport.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/initrd.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
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#include <linux/acpi.h>
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#include <linux/tty.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/kmod.h>
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#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
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#include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
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#include <linux/start_kernel.h>
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#include <linux/security.h>
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#include <linux/smp.h>
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#include <linux/profile.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
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#include <linux/cgroup.h>
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#include <linux/efi.h>
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#include <linux/tick.h>
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#include <linux/interrupt.h>
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#include <linux/taskstats_kern.h>
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#include <linux/delayacct.h>
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#include <linux/unistd.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/key.h>
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#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
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#include <linux/page_cgroup.h>
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#include <linux/debug_locks.h>
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#include <linux/debugobjects.h>
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#include <linux/lockdep.h>
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#include <linux/kmemleak.h>
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#include <linux/pid_namespace.h>
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#include <linux/device.h>
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#include <linux/kthread.h>
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#include <linux/sched.h>
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#include <linux/signal.h>
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#include <linux/idr.h>
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#include <linux/kgdb.h>
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#include <linux/ftrace.h>
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#include <linux/async.h>
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#include <linux/kmemcheck.h>
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#include <linux/sfi.h>
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#include <linux/shmem_fs.h>
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#include <linux/slab.h>
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#include <linux/perf_event.h>
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#include <linux/file.h>
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#include <linux/ptrace.h>
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#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/elevator.h>
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#include <linux/sched_clock.h>
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#include <linux/context_tracking.h>
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#include <linux/random.h>
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#include <linux/list.h>
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#include <asm/io.h>
#include <asm/bugs.h>
#include <asm/setup.h>
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#include <asm/sections.h>
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#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
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#ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
#include <asm/smp.h>
#endif

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static int kernel_init(void *);
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extern void init_IRQ(void);
extern void fork_init(unsigned long);
extern void radix_tree_init(void);
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#ifndef CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA
static inline void mark_rodata_ro(void) { }
#endif
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/*
 * Debug helper: via this flag we know that we are in 'early bootup code'
 * where only the boot processor is running with IRQ disabled.  This means
 * two things - IRQ must not be enabled before the flag is cleared and some
 * operations which are not allowed with IRQ disabled are allowed while the
 * flag is set.
 */
bool early_boot_irqs_disabled __read_mostly;

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enum system_states system_state __read_mostly;
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(system_state);

/*
 * Boot command-line arguments
 */
#define MAX_INIT_ARGS CONFIG_INIT_ENV_ARG_LIMIT
#define MAX_INIT_ENVS CONFIG_INIT_ENV_ARG_LIMIT

extern void time_init(void);
/* Default late time init is NULL. archs can override this later. */
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void (*__initdata late_time_init)(void);
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/* Untouched command line saved by arch-specific code. */
char __initdata boot_command_line[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
/* Untouched saved command line (eg. for /proc) */
char *saved_command_line;
/* Command line for parameter parsing */
static char *static_command_line;
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/* Command line for per-initcall parameter parsing */
static char *initcall_command_line;
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static char *execute_command;
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static char *ramdisk_execute_command;
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/*
 * Used to generate warnings if static_key manipulation functions are used
 * before jump_label_init is called.
 */
bool static_key_initialized __read_mostly = false;
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(static_key_initialized);

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/*
 * If set, this is an indication to the drivers that reset the underlying
 * device before going ahead with the initialization otherwise driver might
 * rely on the BIOS and skip the reset operation.
 *
 * This is useful if kernel is booting in an unreliable environment.
 * For ex. kdump situaiton where previous kernel has crashed, BIOS has been
 * skipped and devices will be in unknown state.
 */
unsigned int reset_devices;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(reset_devices);
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static int __init set_reset_devices(char *str)
{
	reset_devices = 1;
	return 1;
}

__setup("reset_devices", set_reset_devices);

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static const char * argv_init[MAX_INIT_ARGS+2] = { "init", NULL, };
const char * envp_init[MAX_INIT_ENVS+2] = { "HOME=/", "TERM=linux", NULL, };
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static const char *panic_later, *panic_param;

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extern const struct obs_kernel_param __setup_start[], __setup_end[];
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static int __init obsolete_checksetup(char *line)
{
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	const struct obs_kernel_param *p;
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	int had_early_param = 0;
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	p = __setup_start;
	do {
		int n = strlen(p->str);
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		if (parameqn(line, p->str, n)) {
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			if (p->early) {
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				/* Already done in parse_early_param?
				 * (Needs exact match on param part).
				 * Keep iterating, as we can have early
				 * params and __setups of same names 8( */
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				if (line[n] == '\0' || line[n] == '=')
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					had_early_param = 1;
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			} else if (!p->setup_func) {
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				pr_warn("Parameter %s is obsolete, ignored\n",
					p->str);
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				return 1;
			} else if (p->setup_func(line + n))
				return 1;
		}
		p++;
	} while (p < __setup_end);
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	return had_early_param;
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}

/*
 * This should be approx 2 Bo*oMips to start (note initial shift), and will
 * still work even if initially too large, it will just take slightly longer
 */
unsigned long loops_per_jiffy = (1<<12);

EXPORT_SYMBOL(loops_per_jiffy);

static int __init debug_kernel(char *str)
{
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	console_loglevel = CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL_DEBUG;
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	return 0;
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}

static int __init quiet_kernel(char *str)
{
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	console_loglevel = CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL_QUIET;
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	return 0;
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}

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early_param("debug", debug_kernel);
early_param("quiet", quiet_kernel);
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static int __init loglevel(char *str)
{
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	int newlevel;

	/*
	 * Only update loglevel value when a correct setting was passed,
	 * to prevent blind crashes (when loglevel being set to 0) that
	 * are quite hard to debug
	 */
	if (get_option(&str, &newlevel)) {
		console_loglevel = newlevel;
		return 0;
	}

	return -EINVAL;
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}

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early_param("loglevel", loglevel);
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/* Change NUL term back to "=", to make "param" the whole string. */
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static int __init repair_env_string(char *param, char *val, const char *unused)
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{
	if (val) {
		/* param=val or param="val"? */
		if (val == param+strlen(param)+1)
			val[-1] = '=';
		else if (val == param+strlen(param)+2) {
			val[-2] = '=';
			memmove(val-1, val, strlen(val)+1);
			val--;
		} else
			BUG();
	}
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	return 0;
}

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/* Anything after -- gets handed straight to init. */
static int __init set_init_arg(char *param, char *val, const char *unused)
{
	unsigned int i;

	if (panic_later)
		return 0;

	repair_env_string(param, val, unused);

	for (i = 0; argv_init[i]; i++) {
		if (i == MAX_INIT_ARGS) {
			panic_later = "init";
			panic_param = param;
			return 0;
		}
	}
	argv_init[i] = param;
	return 0;
}

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/*
 * Unknown boot options get handed to init, unless they look like
 * unused parameters (modprobe will find them in /proc/cmdline).
 */
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static int __init unknown_bootoption(char *param, char *val, const char *unused)
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{
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	repair_env_string(param, val, unused);
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	/* Handle obsolete-style parameters */
	if (obsolete_checksetup(param))
		return 0;

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	/* Unused module parameter. */
	if (strchr(param, '.') && (!val || strchr(param, '.') < val))
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		return 0;

	if (panic_later)
		return 0;

	if (val) {
		/* Environment option */
		unsigned int i;
		for (i = 0; envp_init[i]; i++) {
			if (i == MAX_INIT_ENVS) {
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				panic_later = "env";
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				panic_param = param;
			}
			if (!strncmp(param, envp_init[i], val - param))
				break;
		}
		envp_init[i] = param;
	} else {
		/* Command line option */
		unsigned int i;
		for (i = 0; argv_init[i]; i++) {
			if (i == MAX_INIT_ARGS) {
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				panic_later = "init";
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				panic_param = param;
			}
		}
		argv_init[i] = param;
	}
	return 0;
}

static int __init init_setup(char *str)
{
	unsigned int i;

	execute_command = str;
	/*
	 * In case LILO is going to boot us with default command line,
	 * it prepends "auto" before the whole cmdline which makes
	 * the shell think it should execute a script with such name.
	 * So we ignore all arguments entered _before_ init=... [MJ]
	 */
	for (i = 1; i < MAX_INIT_ARGS; i++)
		argv_init[i] = NULL;
	return 1;
}
__setup("init=", init_setup);

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static int __init rdinit_setup(char *str)
{
	unsigned int i;

	ramdisk_execute_command = str;
	/* See "auto" comment in init_setup */
	for (i = 1; i < MAX_INIT_ARGS; i++)
		argv_init[i] = NULL;
	return 1;
}
__setup("rdinit=", rdinit_setup);

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#ifndef CONFIG_SMP
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static const unsigned int setup_max_cpus = NR_CPUS;
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#ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
static void __init smp_init(void)
{
	APIC_init_uniprocessor();
}
#else
#define smp_init()	do { } while (0)
#endif

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static inline void setup_nr_cpu_ids(void) { }
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static inline void smp_prepare_cpus(unsigned int maxcpus) { }
#endif

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/*
 * We need to store the untouched command line for future reference.
 * We also need to store the touched command line since the parameter
 * parsing is performed in place, and we should allow a component to
 * store reference of name/value for future reference.
 */
static void __init setup_command_line(char *command_line)
{
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	saved_command_line =
		memblock_virt_alloc(strlen(boot_command_line) + 1, 0);
	initcall_command_line =
		memblock_virt_alloc(strlen(boot_command_line) + 1, 0);
	static_command_line = memblock_virt_alloc(strlen(command_line) + 1, 0);
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	strcpy (saved_command_line, boot_command_line);
	strcpy (static_command_line, command_line);
}

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/*
 * We need to finalize in a non-__init function or else race conditions
 * between the root thread and the init thread may cause start_kernel to
 * be reaped by free_initmem before the root thread has proceeded to
 * cpu_idle.
 *
 * gcc-3.4 accidentally inlines this function, so use noinline.
 */

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static __initdata DECLARE_COMPLETION(kthreadd_done);

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static noinline void __init_refok rest_init(void)
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{
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	int pid;

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	rcu_scheduler_starting();
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	/*
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	 * We need to spawn init first so that it obtains pid 1, however
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	 * the init task will end up wanting to create kthreads, which, if
	 * we schedule it before we create kthreadd, will OOPS.
	 */
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	kernel_thread(kernel_init, NULL, CLONE_FS);
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	numa_default_policy();
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	pid = kernel_thread(kthreadd, NULL, CLONE_FS | CLONE_FILES);
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	rcu_read_lock();
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	kthreadd_task = find_task_by_pid_ns(pid, &init_pid_ns);
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	rcu_read_unlock();
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	complete(&kthreadd_done);
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	/*
	 * The boot idle thread must execute schedule()
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	 * at least once to get things moving:
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	 */
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	init_idle_bootup_task(current);
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	schedule_preempt_disabled();
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	/* Call into cpu_idle with preempt disabled */
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	cpu_startup_entry(CPUHP_ONLINE);
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}
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/* Check for early params. */
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static int __init do_early_param(char *param, char *val, const char *unused)
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{
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	const struct obs_kernel_param *p;
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	for (p = __setup_start; p < __setup_end; p++) {
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		if ((p->early && parameq(param, p->str)) ||
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		    (strcmp(param, "console") == 0 &&
		     strcmp(p->str, "earlycon") == 0)
		) {
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			if (p->setup_func(val) != 0)
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				pr_warn("Malformed early option '%s'\n", param);
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		}
	}
	/* We accept everything at this stage. */
	return 0;
}

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void __init parse_early_options(char *cmdline)
{
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	parse_args("early options", cmdline, NULL, 0, 0, 0, do_early_param);
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}

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/* Arch code calls this early on, or if not, just before other parsing. */
void __init parse_early_param(void)
{
	static __initdata int done = 0;
	static __initdata char tmp_cmdline[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];

	if (done)
		return;

	/* All fall through to do_early_param. */
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	strlcpy(tmp_cmdline, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
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	parse_early_options(tmp_cmdline);
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	done = 1;
}

/*
 *	Activate the first processor.
 */

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static void __init boot_cpu_init(void)
{
	int cpu = smp_processor_id();
	/* Mark the boot cpu "present", "online" etc for SMP and UP case */
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	set_cpu_online(cpu, true);
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	set_cpu_active(cpu, true);
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	set_cpu_present(cpu, true);
	set_cpu_possible(cpu, true);
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}

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void __init __weak smp_setup_processor_id(void)
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{
}

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# if THREAD_SIZE >= PAGE_SIZE
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void __init __weak thread_info_cache_init(void)
{
}
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#endif
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/*
 * Set up kernel memory allocators
 */
static void __init mm_init(void)
{
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	/*
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	 * page_cgroup requires contiguous pages,
	 * bigger than MAX_ORDER unless SPARSEMEM.
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	 */
	page_cgroup_init_flatmem();
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	mem_init();
	kmem_cache_init();
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	percpu_init_late();
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	pgtable_init();
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	vmalloc_init();
}

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asmlinkage __visible void __init start_kernel(void)
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{
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	char * command_line, *after_dashes;
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	extern const struct kernel_param __start___param[], __stop___param[];
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	/*
	 * Need to run as early as possible, to initialize the
	 * lockdep hash:
	 */
	lockdep_init();
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	smp_setup_processor_id();
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	debug_objects_early_init();
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	/*
	 * Set up the the initial canary ASAP:
	 */
	boot_init_stack_canary();

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	cgroup_init_early();
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	local_irq_disable();
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	early_boot_irqs_disabled = true;
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/*
 * Interrupts are still disabled. Do necessary setups, then
 * enable them
 */
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	boot_cpu_init();
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	page_address_init();
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	pr_notice("%s", linux_banner);
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	setup_arch(&command_line);
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	mm_init_cpumask(&init_mm);
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	setup_command_line(command_line);
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	setup_nr_cpu_ids();
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	setup_per_cpu_areas();
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	smp_prepare_boot_cpu();	/* arch-specific boot-cpu hooks */
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	build_all_zonelists(NULL, NULL);
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	page_alloc_init();

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	pr_notice("Kernel command line: %s\n", boot_command_line);
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	parse_early_param();
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	after_dashes = parse_args("Booting kernel",
				  static_command_line, __start___param,
				  __stop___param - __start___param,
				  -1, -1, &unknown_bootoption);
	if (after_dashes)
		parse_args("Setting init args", after_dashes, NULL, 0, -1, -1,
			   set_init_arg);
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	jump_label_init();

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	/*
	 * These use large bootmem allocations and must precede
	 * kmem_cache_init()
	 */
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	setup_log_buf(0);
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	pidhash_init();
	vfs_caches_init_early();
	sort_main_extable();
	trap_init();
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	mm_init();
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	/*
	 * Set up the scheduler prior starting any interrupts (such as the
	 * timer interrupt). Full topology setup happens at smp_init()
	 * time - but meanwhile we still have a functioning scheduler.
	 */
	sched_init();
	/*
	 * Disable preemption - early bootup scheduling is extremely
	 * fragile until we cpu_idle() for the first time.
	 */
	preempt_disable();
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	if (WARN(!irqs_disabled(), "Interrupts were enabled *very* early, fixing it\n"))
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		local_irq_disable();
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	idr_init_cache();
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	rcu_init();
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	tick_nohz_init();
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	context_tracking_init();
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	radix_tree_init();
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	/* init some links before init_ISA_irqs() */
	early_irq_init();
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	init_IRQ();
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	tick_init();
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	init_timers();
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	hrtimers_init();
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	softirq_init();
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	timekeeping_init();
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	time_init();
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	sched_clock_postinit();
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	perf_event_init();
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	profile_init();
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	call_function_init();
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	WARN(!irqs_disabled(), "Interrupts were enabled early\n");
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	early_boot_irqs_disabled = false;
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	local_irq_enable();
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	kmem_cache_init_late();
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	/*
	 * HACK ALERT! This is early. We're enabling the console before
	 * we've done PCI setups etc, and console_init() must be aware of
	 * this. But we do want output early, in case something goes wrong.
	 */
	console_init();
	if (panic_later)
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		panic("Too many boot %s vars at `%s'", panic_later,
		      panic_param);
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	lockdep_info();

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	/*
	 * Need to run this when irqs are enabled, because it wants
	 * to self-test [hard/soft]-irqs on/off lock inversion bugs
	 * too:
	 */
	locking_selftest();

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#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
	if (initrd_start && !initrd_below_start_ok &&
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	    page_to_pfn(virt_to_page((void *)initrd_start)) < min_low_pfn) {
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		pr_crit("initrd overwritten (0x%08lx < 0x%08lx) - disabling it.\n",
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		    page_to_pfn(virt_to_page((void *)initrd_start)),
		    min_low_pfn);
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		initrd_start = 0;
	}
#endif
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	page_cgroup_init();
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	debug_objects_mem_init();
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	kmemleak_init();
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	setup_per_cpu_pageset();
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	numa_policy_init();
	if (late_time_init)
		late_time_init();
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	sched_clock_init();
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	calibrate_delay();
	pidmap_init();
	anon_vma_init();
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	acpi_early_init();
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#ifdef CONFIG_X86
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	if (efi_enabled(EFI_RUNTIME_SERVICES))
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		efi_enter_virtual_mode();
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#endif
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#ifdef CONFIG_X86_ESPFIX64
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	/* Should be run before the first non-init thread is created */
	init_espfix_bsp();
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#endif
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	thread_info_cache_init();
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	cred_init();
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	fork_init(totalram_pages);
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	proc_caches_init();
	buffer_init();
	key_init();
	security_init();
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	dbg_late_init();
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	vfs_caches_init(totalram_pages);
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	signals_init();
	/* rootfs populating might need page-writeback */
	page_writeback_init();
	proc_root_init();
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	cgroup_init();
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	cpuset_init();
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	taskstats_init_early();
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	delayacct_init();
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	check_bugs();

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	sfi_init_late();
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	if (efi_enabled(EFI_RUNTIME_SERVICES)) {
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		efi_late_init();
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		efi_free_boot_services();
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	}
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	ftrace_init();

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	/* Do the rest non-__init'ed, we're now alive */
	rest_init();
}

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/* Call all constructor functions linked into the kernel. */
static void __init do_ctors(void)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_CONSTRUCTORS
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	ctor_fn_t *fn = (ctor_fn_t *) __ctors_start;
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	for (; fn < (ctor_fn_t *) __ctors_end; fn++)
		(*fn)();
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#endif
}

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bool initcall_debug;
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core_param(initcall_debug, initcall_debug, bool, 0644);
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#ifdef CONFIG_KALLSYMS
struct blacklist_entry {
	struct list_head next;
	char *buf;
};

static __initdata_or_module LIST_HEAD(blacklisted_initcalls);

static int __init initcall_blacklist(char *str)
{
	char *str_entry;
	struct blacklist_entry *entry;

	/* str argument is a comma-separated list of functions */
	do {
		str_entry = strsep(&str, ",");
		if (str_entry) {
			pr_debug("blacklisting initcall %s\n", str_entry);
			entry = alloc_bootmem(sizeof(*entry));
			entry->buf = alloc_bootmem(strlen(str_entry) + 1);
			strcpy(entry->buf, str_entry);
			list_add(&entry->next, &blacklisted_initcalls);
		}
	} while (str_entry);

	return 0;
}

static bool __init_or_module initcall_blacklisted(initcall_t fn)
{
	struct list_head *tmp;
	struct blacklist_entry *entry;
	char *fn_name;

	fn_name = kasprintf(GFP_KERNEL, "%pf", fn);
	if (!fn_name)
		return false;

	list_for_each(tmp, &blacklisted_initcalls) {
		entry = list_entry(tmp, struct blacklist_entry, next);
		if (!strcmp(fn_name, entry->buf)) {
			pr_debug("initcall %s blacklisted\n", fn_name);
			kfree(fn_name);
			return true;
		}
	}

	kfree(fn_name);
	return false;
}
#else
static int __init initcall_blacklist(char *str)
{
	pr_warn("initcall_blacklist requires CONFIG_KALLSYMS\n");
	return 0;
}

static bool __init_or_module initcall_blacklisted(initcall_t fn)
{
	return false;
}
#endif
__setup("initcall_blacklist=", initcall_blacklist);

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static int __init_or_module do_one_initcall_debug(initcall_t fn)
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{
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	ktime_t calltime, delta, rettime;
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	unsigned long long duration;
	int ret;
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	printk(KERN_DEBUG "calling  %pF @ %i\n", fn, task_pid_nr(current));
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	calltime = ktime_get();
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	ret = fn();
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	rettime = ktime_get();
	delta = ktime_sub(rettime, calltime);
	duration = (unsigned long long) ktime_to_ns(delta) >> 10;
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	printk(KERN_DEBUG "initcall %pF returned %d after %lld usecs\n",
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		 fn, ret, duration);
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	return ret;
}

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int __init_or_module do_one_initcall(initcall_t fn)
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{
	int count = preempt_count();
	int ret;
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	char msgbuf[64];
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	if (initcall_blacklisted(fn))
		return -EPERM;

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	if (initcall_debug)
		ret = do_one_initcall_debug(fn);
	else
		ret = fn();
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	msgbuf[0] = 0;
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	if (preempt_count() != count) {
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		sprintf(msgbuf, "preemption imbalance ");
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		preempt_count_set(count);
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	}
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	if (irqs_disabled()) {
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		strlcat(msgbuf, "disabled interrupts ", sizeof(msgbuf));
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		local_irq_enable();
	}
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	WARN(msgbuf[0], "initcall %pF returned with %s\n", fn, msgbuf);
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	return ret;
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}


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extern initcall_t __initcall_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall0_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall1_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall2_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall3_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall4_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall5_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall6_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall7_start[];
extern initcall_t __initcall_end[];

static initcall_t *initcall_levels[] __initdata = {
	__initcall0_start,
	__initcall1_start,
	__initcall2_start,
	__initcall3_start,
	__initcall4_start,
	__initcall5_start,
	__initcall6_start,
	__initcall7_start,
	__initcall_end,
};

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/* Keep these in sync with initcalls in include/linux/init.h */
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static char *initcall_level_names[] __initdata = {
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	"early",
	"core",
	"postcore",
	"arch",
	"subsys",
	"fs",
	"device",
	"late",
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};

static void __init do_initcall_level(int level)
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{
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	extern const struct kernel_param __start___param[], __stop___param[];
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	initcall_t *fn;
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	strcpy(initcall_command_line, saved_command_line);
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	parse_args(initcall_level_names[level],
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		   initcall_command_line, __start___param,
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		   __stop___param - __start___param,
		   level, level,
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		   &repair_env_string);
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	for (fn = initcall_levels[level]; fn < initcall_levels[level+1]; fn++)
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		do_one_initcall(*fn);
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}

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static void __init do_initcalls(void)
{
	int level;

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	for (level = 0; level < ARRAY_SIZE(initcall_levels) - 1; level++)
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		do_initcall_level(level);
}

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/*
 * Ok, the machine is now initialized. None of the devices
 * have been touched yet, but the CPU subsystem is up and
 * running, and memory and process management works.
 *
 * Now we can finally start doing some real work..
 */
static void __init do_basic_setup(void)
{
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	cpuset_init_smp();
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	usermodehelper_init();
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	shmem_init();
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	driver_init();
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	init_irq_proc();
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	do_ctors();
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	usermodehelper_enable();
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	do_initcalls();
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	random_int_secret_init();
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}

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static void __init do_pre_smp_initcalls(void)
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{
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	initcall_t *fn;
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	for (fn = __initcall_start; fn < __initcall0_start; fn++)
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		do_one_initcall(*fn);
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}

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/*
 * This function requests modules which should be loaded by default and is
 * called twice right after initrd is mounted and right before init is
 * exec'd.  If such modules are on either initrd or rootfs, they will be
 * loaded before control is passed to userland.
 */
void __init load_default_modules(void)
{
	load_default_elevator_module();
}

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static int run_init_process(const char *init_filename)
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{
	argv_init[0] = init_filename;
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	return do_execve(getname_kernel(init_filename),
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		(const char __user *const __user *)argv_init,
		(const char __user *const __user *)envp_init);
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}

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static int try_to_run_init_process(const char *init_filename)
{
	int ret;

	ret = run_init_process(init_filename);

	if (ret && ret != -ENOENT) {
		pr_err("Starting init: %s exists but couldn't execute it (error %d)\n",
		       init_filename, ret);
	}

	return ret;
}

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static noinline void __init kernel_init_freeable(void);
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static int __ref kernel_init(void *unused)
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{
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	int ret;

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	kernel_init_freeable();
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	/* need to finish all async __init code before freeing the memory */
	async_synchronize_full();
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	free_initmem();
	mark_rodata_ro();
	system_state = SYSTEM_RUNNING;
	numa_default_policy();

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	flush_delayed_fput();
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	if (ramdisk_execute_command) {
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		ret = run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command);
		if (!ret)
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			return 0;
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		pr_err("Failed to execute %s (error %d)\n",
		       ramdisk_execute_command, ret);
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	}

	/*
	 * We try each of these until one succeeds.
	 *
	 * The Bourne shell can be used instead of init if we are
	 * trying to recover a really broken machine.
	 */
	if (execute_command) {
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		ret = run_init_process(execute_command);
		if (!ret)
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			return 0;
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		pr_err("Failed to execute %s (error %d).  Attempting defaults...\n",
			execute_command, ret);
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	}
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	if (!try_to_run_init_process("/sbin/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/etc/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/bin/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/bin/sh"))
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		return 0;
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	panic("No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. "
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	      "See Linux Documentation/init.txt for guidance.");
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}

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static noinline void __init kernel_init_freeable(void)
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{
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	/*
	 * Wait until kthreadd is all set-up.
	 */
	wait_for_completion(&kthreadd_done);
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	/* Now the scheduler is fully set up and can do blocking allocations */
	gfp_allowed_mask = __GFP_BITS_MASK;

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	/*
	 * init can allocate pages on any node
	 */
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	set_mems_allowed(node_states[N_MEMORY]);
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	/*
	 * init can run on any cpu.
	 */
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	set_cpus_allowed_ptr(current, cpu_all_mask);
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	cad_pid = task_pid(current);

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	smp_prepare_cpus(setup_max_cpus);
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	do_pre_smp_initcalls();
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	lockup_detector_init();
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	smp_init();
	sched_init_smp();

	do_basic_setup();

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	/* Open the /dev/console on the rootfs, this should never fail */
	if (sys_open((const char __user *) "/dev/console", O_RDWR, 0) < 0)
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		pr_err("Warning: unable to open an initial console.\n");
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	(void) sys_dup(0);
	(void) sys_dup(0);
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	/*
	 * check if there is an early userspace init.  If yes, let it do all
	 * the work
	 */
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	if (!ramdisk_execute_command)
		ramdisk_execute_command = "/init";

	if (sys_access((const char __user *) ramdisk_execute_command, 0) != 0) {
		ramdisk_execute_command = NULL;
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		prepare_namespace();
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	}
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	/*
	 * Ok, we have completed the initial bootup, and
	 * we're essentially up and running. Get rid of the
	 * initmem segments and start the user-mode stuff..
	 */
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	/* rootfs is available now, try loading default modules */
	load_default_modules();
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}