Commit 6c905981 authored by Alexei Starovoitov's avatar Alexei Starovoitov Committed by David S. Miller

bpf: pre-allocate hash map elements

If kprobe is placed on spin_unlock then calling kmalloc/kfree from
bpf programs is not safe, since the following dead lock is possible:
bpf_prog->map_update->kmalloc->spin_lock(of the same kmem_cache_node->lock)
and deadlocks.

The following solutions were considered and some implemented, but
eventually discarded
- kmem_cache_create for every map
- add recursion check to slow-path of slub
- use reserved memory in bpf_map_update for in_irq or in preempt_disabled
- kmalloc via irq_work

At the end pre-allocation of all map elements turned out to be the simplest
solution and since the user is charged upfront for all the memory, such
pre-allocation doesn't affect the user space visible behavior.

Since it's impossible to tell whether kprobe is triggered in a safe
location from kmalloc point of view, use pre-allocation by default
and introduce new BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC flag.

While testing of per-cpu hash maps it was discovered
that alloc_percpu(GFP_ATOMIC) has odd corner cases and often
fails to allocate memory even when 90% of it is free.
The pre-allocation of per-cpu hash elements solves this problem as well.

Turned out that bpf_map_update() quickly followed by
bpf_map_lookup()+bpf_map_delete() is very common pattern used
in many of iovisor/bcc/tools, so there is additional benefit of
pre-allocation, since such use cases are must faster.

Since all hash map elements are now pre-allocated we can remove
atomic increment of htab->count and save few more cycles.

Also add bpf_map_precharge_memlock() to check rlimit_memlock early to avoid
large malloc/free done by users who don't have sufficient limits.

Pre-allocation is done with vmalloc and alloc/free is done
via percpu_freelist. Here are performance numbers for different
pre-allocation algorithms that were implemented, but discarded
in favor of percpu_freelist:

1 cpu:
pcpu_ida	2.1M
pcpu_ida nolock	2.3M
bt		2.4M
kmalloc		1.8M
hlist+spinlock	2.3M
pcpu_freelist	2.6M

4 cpu:
pcpu_ida	1.5M
pcpu_ida nolock	1.8M
bt w/smp_align	1.7M
bt no/smp_align	1.1M
kmalloc		0.7M
hlist+spinlock	0.2M
pcpu_freelist	2.0M

8 cpu:
pcpu_ida	0.7M
bt w/smp_align	0.8M
kmalloc		0.4M
pcpu_freelist	1.5M

32 cpu:
kmalloc		0.13M
pcpu_freelist	0.49M

pcpu_ida nolock is a modified percpu_ida algorithm without
percpu_ida_cpu locks and without cross-cpu tag stealing.
It's faster than existing percpu_ida, but not as fast as pcpu_freelist.

bt is a variant of block/blk-mq-tag.c simlified and customized
for bpf use case. bt w/smp_align is using cache line for every 'long'
(similar to blk-mq-tag). bt no/smp_align allocates 'long'
bitmasks continuously to save memory. It's comparable to percpu_ida
and in some cases faster, but slower than percpu_freelist

hlist+spinlock is the simplest free list with single spinlock.
As expeceted it has very bad scaling in SMP.

kmalloc is existing implementation which is still available via
BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC flag. It's significantly slower in single cpu and
in 8 cpu setup it's 3 times slower than pre-allocation with pcpu_freelist,
but saves memory, so in cases where map->max_entries can be large
and number of map update/delete per second is low, it may make
sense to use it.
Signed-off-by: 's avatarAlexei Starovoitov <>
Signed-off-by: 's avatarDavid S. Miller <>
parent e19494ed
......@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@ struct bpf_map {
u32 key_size;
u32 value_size;
u32 max_entries;
u32 map_flags;
u32 pages;
struct user_struct *user;
const struct bpf_map_ops *ops;
......@@ -178,6 +179,7 @@ struct bpf_map *__bpf_map_get(struct fd f);
void bpf_map_inc(struct bpf_map *map, bool uref);
void bpf_map_put_with_uref(struct bpf_map *map);
void bpf_map_put(struct bpf_map *map);
int bpf_map_precharge_memlock(u32 pages);
extern int sysctl_unprivileged_bpf_disabled;
......@@ -101,12 +101,15 @@ enum bpf_prog_type {
#define BPF_NOEXIST 1 /* create new element if it didn't exist */
#define BPF_EXIST 2 /* update existing element */
#define BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC (1U << 0)
union bpf_attr {
struct { /* anonymous struct used by BPF_MAP_CREATE command */
__u32 map_type; /* one of enum bpf_map_type */
__u32 key_size; /* size of key in bytes */
__u32 value_size; /* size of value in bytes */
__u32 max_entries; /* max number of entries in a map */
__u32 map_flags; /* prealloc or not */
struct { /* anonymous struct used by BPF_MAP_*_ELEM commands */
This diff is collapsed.
......@@ -48,6 +48,19 @@ void bpf_register_map_type(struct bpf_map_type_list *tl)
list_add(&tl->list_node, &bpf_map_types);
int bpf_map_precharge_memlock(u32 pages)
struct user_struct *user = get_current_user();
unsigned long memlock_limit, cur;
memlock_limit = rlimit(RLIMIT_MEMLOCK) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
cur = atomic_long_read(&user->locked_vm);
if (cur + pages > memlock_limit)
return -EPERM;
return 0;
static int bpf_map_charge_memlock(struct bpf_map *map)
struct user_struct *user = get_current_user();
......@@ -153,7 +166,7 @@ int bpf_map_new_fd(struct bpf_map *map)
offsetof(union bpf_attr, CMD##_LAST_FIELD) - \
sizeof(attr->CMD##_LAST_FIELD)) != NULL
#define BPF_MAP_CREATE_LAST_FIELD max_entries
#define BPF_MAP_CREATE_LAST_FIELD map_flags
/* called via syscall */
static int map_create(union bpf_attr *attr)
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