1. 15 Mar, 2018 2 commits
  2. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  3. 17 Jul, 2017 2 commits
    • Logan Gunthorpe's avatar
      char_dev: order /proc/devices by major number · 8a932f73
      Logan Gunthorpe authored
      Presently, the order of the char devices listed in /proc/devices is not
      entirely sequential. If a char device has a major number greater than
      CHRDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE (255), it will be ordered as if its major were
      module 255. For example, 511 appears after 1.
      
      This patch cleans that up and prints each major number in the correct
      order, regardless of where they are stored in the hash table.
      
      In order to do this, we introduce CHRDEV_MAJOR_MAX as an artificial
      limit (chosen to be 511). It will then print all devices in major
      order number from 0 to the maximum.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLogan Gunthorpe <logang@deltatee.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      Cc: Alan Cox <alan@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      8a932f73
    • Logan Gunthorpe's avatar
      char_dev: extend dynamic allocation of majors into a higher range · a5d31a3f
      Logan Gunthorpe authored
      We've run into problems with running out of dynamicly assign char
      device majors particullarly on automated test systems with
      all-yes-configs. Roughly 40 dynamic assignments can be made with such
      kernels at this time while space is reserved for only 20.
      
      Currently, the kernel only prints a warning when dynamic allocation
      overflows the reserved region. And when this happens drivers that have
      fixed assignments can randomly fail depending on the order of
      initialization of other drivers. Thus, adding a new char device can cause
      unexpected failures in completely unrelated parts of the kernel.
      
      This patch solves the problem by extending dynamic major number
      allocations down from 511 once the 234-254 region fills up. Fixed
      majors already exist above 255 so the infrastructure to support
      high number majors is already in place. The patch reserves an
      additional 128 major numbers which should hopefully last us a while.
      
      Kernels that don't require more than 20 dynamic majors assigned (which
      is pretty typical) should not be affected by this change.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLogan Gunthorpe <logang@deltatee.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Alan Cox <alan@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
      Link: https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/6/4/107Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      a5d31a3f
  4. 21 Mar, 2017 1 commit
    • Logan Gunthorpe's avatar
      chardev: add helper function to register char devs with a struct device · 233ed09d
      Logan Gunthorpe authored
      Credit for this patch goes is shared with Dan Williams [1]. I've
      taken things one step further to make the helper function more
      useful and clean up calling code.
      
      There's a common pattern in the kernel whereby a struct cdev is placed
      in a structure along side a struct device which manages the life-cycle
      of both. In the naive approach, the reference counting is broken and
      the struct device can free everything before the chardev code
      is entirely released.
      
      Many developers have solved this problem by linking the internal kobjs
      in this fashion:
      
      cdev.kobj.parent = &parent_dev.kobj;
      
      The cdev code explicitly gets and puts a reference to it's kobj parent.
      So this seems like it was intended to be used this way. Dmitrty Torokhov
      first put this in place in 2012 with this commit:
      
      2f0157f1 char_dev: pin parent kobject
      
      and the first instance of the fix was then done in the input subsystem
      in the following commit:
      
      4a215aad Input: fix use-after-free introduced with dynamic minor changes
      
      Subsequently over the years, however, this issue seems to have tripped
      up multiple developers independently. For example, see these commits:
      
      0d5b7dae iio: Prevent race between IIO chardev opening and IIO device
      (by Lars-Peter Clausen in 2013)
      
      ba0ef854 tpm: Fix initialization of the cdev
      (by Jason Gunthorpe in 2015)
      
      5b28dde5 [media] media: fix use-after-free in cdev_put() when app exits
      after driver unbind
      (by Shauh Khan in 2016)
      
      This technique is similarly done in at least 15 places within the kernel
      and probably should have been done so in another, at least, 5 places.
      The kobj line also looks very suspect in that one would not expect
      drivers to have to mess with kobject internals in this way.
      Even highly experienced kernel developers can be surprised by this
      code, as seen in [2].
      
      To help alleviate this situation, and hopefully prevent future
      wasted effort on this problem, this patch introduces a helper function
      to register a char device along with its parent struct device.
      This creates a more regular API for tying a char device to its parent
      without the developer having to set members in the underlying kobject.
      
      This patch introduce cdev_device_add and cdev_device_del which
      replaces a common pattern including setting the kobj parent, calling
      cdev_add and then calling device_add. It also introduces cdev_set_parent
      for the few cases that set the kobject parent without using device_add.
      
      [1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/2/13/700
      [2] https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/2/10/370Signed-off-by: default avatarLogan Gunthorpe <logang@deltatee.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarHans Verkuil <hans.verkuil@cisco.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarAlexandre Belloni <alexandre.belloni@free-electrons.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      233ed09d
  5. 24 Aug, 2016 1 commit
  6. 14 Jul, 2016 1 commit
    • Fengguang Wu's avatar
      chardev: add missing line break in pr_warn · 077e2642
      Fengguang Wu authored
      To fix super long dmesg error lines like
      
        CHRDEV "dummy_stm.0" major number 224 goes below the dynamic allocation rangeCHRDEV "dummy_stm.1" major number 223 goes below the dynamic allocation rangeswapper: page allocation failure: order:8, mode:0x26040c0(GFP_KERNEL|__GFP_COMP|__GFP_NOTRACK)
      
      After fix, it should look like
      
        CHRDEV "dummy_stm.0" major number 224 goes below the dynamic allocation range
        CHRDEV "dummy_stm.1" major number 223 goes below the dynamic allocation range
        swapper: page allocation failure: order:8, mode:0x26040c0(GFP_KERNEL|__GFP_COMP|__GFP_NOTRACK)
      Reported-by: default avatarPhilip Li <philip.li@intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarFengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      077e2642
  7. 29 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Linus Walleij's avatar
      chrdev: emit a warning when we go below dynamic major range · 49db08c3
      Linus Walleij authored
      Currently a dynamically allocated character device major is taken
      from 254 and downward. This mechanism is used for RTC, IIO and a
      few other subsystems.
      
      The kernel currently has no check prevening these dynamic
      allocations from eating into the assigned numbers at 233 and
      downward.
      
      In a recent test it was reported that so many dynamic device
      majors were used on a test server, that the major number for
      infiniband (231) was stolen. This occurred when allocating a new
      major number for GPIO chips. The error messages from the kernel
      were not helpful. (See: https://lkml.org/lkml/2016/2/14/124)
      
      This patch adds a defined lower limit of the dynamic major
      allocation region will henceforth emit a warning if we start to
      eat into the assigned numbers. It does not do any semantic
      changes and will not change the kernels behaviour: numbers will
      still continue to be stolen, but we will know from dmesg what
      is going on.
      
      This also updates the Documentation/devices.txt to clearly
      reflect that we are using this range of major numbers for dynamic
      allocation.
      Reported-by: default avatarYing Huang <ying.huang@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      Cc: Alan Cox <alan@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      49db08c3
  8. 05 Aug, 2015 1 commit
  9. 20 Jan, 2015 1 commit
  10. 11 Dec, 2014 1 commit
  11. 08 Nov, 2013 1 commit
  12. 25 Oct, 2013 1 commit
  13. 22 Oct, 2012 1 commit
  14. 13 Dec, 2011 1 commit
  15. 13 Jan, 2011 1 commit
  16. 17 Dec, 2010 1 commit
  17. 15 Oct, 2010 1 commit
    • Arnd Bergmann's avatar
      llseek: automatically add .llseek fop · 6038f373
      Arnd Bergmann authored
      All file_operations should get a .llseek operation so we can make
      nonseekable_open the default for future file operations without a
      .llseek pointer.
      
      The three cases that we can automatically detect are no_llseek, seq_lseek
      and default_llseek. For cases where we can we can automatically prove that
      the file offset is always ignored, we use noop_llseek, which maintains
      the current behavior of not returning an error from a seek.
      
      New drivers should normally not use noop_llseek but instead use no_llseek
      and call nonseekable_open at open time.  Existing drivers can be converted
      to do the same when the maintainer knows for certain that no user code
      relies on calling seek on the device file.
      
      The generated code is often incorrectly indented and right now contains
      comments that clarify for each added line why a specific variant was
      chosen. In the version that gets submitted upstream, the comments will
      be gone and I will manually fix the indentation, because there does not
      seem to be a way to do that using coccinelle.
      
      Some amount of new code is currently sitting in linux-next that should get
      the same modifications, which I will do at the end of the merge window.
      
      Many thanks to Julia Lawall for helping me learn to write a semantic
      patch that does all this.
      
      ===== begin semantic patch =====
      // This adds an llseek= method to all file operations,
      // as a preparation for making no_llseek the default.
      //
      // The rules are
      // - use no_llseek explicitly if we do nonseekable_open
      // - use seq_lseek for sequential files
      // - use default_llseek if we know we access f_pos
      // - use noop_llseek if we know we don't access f_pos,
      //   but we still want to allow users to call lseek
      //
      @ open1 exists @
      identifier nested_open;
      @@
      nested_open(...)
      {
      <+...
      nonseekable_open(...)
      ...+>
      }
      
      @ open exists@
      identifier open_f;
      identifier i, f;
      identifier open1.nested_open;
      @@
      int open_f(struct inode *i, struct file *f)
      {
      <+...
      (
      nonseekable_open(...)
      |
      nested_open(...)
      )
      ...+>
      }
      
      @ read disable optional_qualifier exists @
      identifier read_f;
      identifier f, p, s, off;
      type ssize_t, size_t, loff_t;
      expression E;
      identifier func;
      @@
      ssize_t read_f(struct file *f, char *p, size_t s, loff_t *off)
      {
      <+...
      (
         *off = E
      |
         *off += E
      |
         func(..., off, ...)
      |
         E = *off
      )
      ...+>
      }
      
      @ read_no_fpos disable optional_qualifier exists @
      identifier read_f;
      identifier f, p, s, off;
      type ssize_t, size_t, loff_t;
      @@
      ssize_t read_f(struct file *f, char *p, size_t s, loff_t *off)
      {
      ... when != off
      }
      
      @ write @
      identifier write_f;
      identifier f, p, s, off;
      type ssize_t, size_t, loff_t;
      expression E;
      identifier func;
      @@
      ssize_t write_f(struct file *f, const char *p, size_t s, loff_t *off)
      {
      <+...
      (
        *off = E
      |
        *off += E
      |
        func(..., off, ...)
      |
        E = *off
      )
      ...+>
      }
      
      @ write_no_fpos @
      identifier write_f;
      identifier f, p, s, off;
      type ssize_t, size_t, loff_t;
      @@
      ssize_t write_f(struct file *f, const char *p, size_t s, loff_t *off)
      {
      ... when != off
      }
      
      @ fops0 @
      identifier fops;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
       ...
      };
      
      @ has_llseek depends on fops0 @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier llseek_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
       .llseek = llseek_f,
      ...
      };
      
      @ has_read depends on fops0 @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier read_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
       .read = read_f,
      ...
      };
      
      @ has_write depends on fops0 @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier write_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
       .write = write_f,
      ...
      };
      
      @ has_open depends on fops0 @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier open_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
       .open = open_f,
      ...
      };
      
      // use no_llseek if we call nonseekable_open
      ////////////////////////////////////////////
      @ nonseekable1 depends on !has_llseek && has_open @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier nso ~= "nonseekable_open";
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...  .open = nso, ...
      +.llseek = no_llseek, /* nonseekable */
      };
      
      @ nonseekable2 depends on !has_llseek @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier open.open_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...  .open = open_f, ...
      +.llseek = no_llseek, /* open uses nonseekable */
      };
      
      // use seq_lseek for sequential files
      /////////////////////////////////////
      @ seq depends on !has_llseek @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier sr ~= "seq_read";
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...  .read = sr, ...
      +.llseek = seq_lseek, /* we have seq_read */
      };
      
      // use default_llseek if there is a readdir
      ///////////////////////////////////////////
      @ fops1 depends on !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier readdir_e;
      @@
      // any other fop is used that changes pos
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ... .readdir = readdir_e, ...
      +.llseek = default_llseek, /* readdir is present */
      };
      
      // use default_llseek if at least one of read/write touches f_pos
      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
      @ fops2 depends on !fops1 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier read.read_f;
      @@
      // read fops use offset
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ... .read = read_f, ...
      +.llseek = default_llseek, /* read accesses f_pos */
      };
      
      @ fops3 depends on !fops1 && !fops2 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier write.write_f;
      @@
      // write fops use offset
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ... .write = write_f, ...
      +	.llseek = default_llseek, /* write accesses f_pos */
      };
      
      // Use noop_llseek if neither read nor write accesses f_pos
      ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
      
      @ fops4 depends on !fops1 && !fops2 && !fops3 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier read_no_fpos.read_f;
      identifier write_no_fpos.write_f;
      @@
      // write fops use offset
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
       .write = write_f,
       .read = read_f,
      ...
      +.llseek = noop_llseek, /* read and write both use no f_pos */
      };
      
      @ depends on has_write && !has_read && !fops1 && !fops2 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier write_no_fpos.write_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ... .write = write_f, ...
      +.llseek = noop_llseek, /* write uses no f_pos */
      };
      
      @ depends on has_read && !has_write && !fops1 && !fops2 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      identifier read_no_fpos.read_f;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ... .read = read_f, ...
      +.llseek = noop_llseek, /* read uses no f_pos */
      };
      
      @ depends on !has_read && !has_write && !fops1 && !fops2 && !has_llseek && !nonseekable1 && !nonseekable2 && !seq @
      identifier fops0.fops;
      @@
      struct file_operations fops = {
      ...
      +.llseek = noop_llseek, /* no read or write fn */
      };
      ===== End semantic patch =====
      Signed-off-by: default avatarArnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Julia Lawall <julia@diku.dk>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
      6038f373
  18. 22 Sep, 2010 1 commit
  19. 06 Aug, 2010 1 commit
    • David Howells's avatar
      Fix init ordering of /dev/console vs callers of modprobe · 31d1d48e
      David Howells authored
      Make /dev/console get initialised before any initialisation routine that
      invokes modprobe because if modprobe fails, it's going to want to open
      /dev/console, presumably to write an error message to.
      
      The problem with that is that if the /dev/console driver is not yet
      initialised, the chardev handler will call request_module() to invoke
      modprobe, which will fail, because we never compile /dev/console as a
      module.
      
      This will lead to a modprobe loop, showing the following in the kernel
      log:
      
      	request_module: runaway loop modprobe char-major-5-1
      	request_module: runaway loop modprobe char-major-5-1
      	request_module: runaway loop modprobe char-major-5-1
      	request_module: runaway loop modprobe char-major-5-1
      	request_module: runaway loop modprobe char-major-5-1
      
      This can happen, for example, when the built in md5 module can't find
      the built in cryptomgr module (because the latter fails to initialise).
      The md5 module comes before the call to tty_init(), presumably because
      'crypto' comes before 'drivers' alphabetically.
      
      Fix this by calling tty_init() from chrdev_init().
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      31d1d48e
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    • Theodore Ts'o's avatar
      fs: Remove i_cindex from struct inode · 9fd5746f
      Theodore Ts'o authored
      The only user of the i_cindex element in the inode structure is used
      is by the firewire drivers.  As part of an attempt to slim down the
      inode structure to save memory --- since a typical Linux system will
      have hundreds of thousands if not millions of inodes cached, a
      reduction in the size inode has high leverage.
      
      The firewire driver does not need i_cindex in any fast path, so it's
      simple enough to calculate when it is needed, instead of wasting space
      in the inode structure.
      Signed-off-by: default avatar"Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
      Cc: krh@redhat.com
      Cc: stefanr@s5r6.in-berlin.de
      Cc: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      9fd5746f
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