spi-howto.txt 17.8 KB
Newer Older
1 2 3 4 5
How to port a SPI driver to driver model
========================================

Here is a rough step-by-step guide. It is based around converting the
exynos SPI driver to driver model (DM) and the example code is based
6 7
around U-Boot v2014.10-rc2 (commit be9f643). This has been updated for
v2015.04.
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

It is quite long since it includes actual code examples.

Before driver model, SPI drivers have their own private structure which
contains 'struct spi_slave'. With driver model, 'struct spi_slave' still
exists, but now it is 'per-child data' for the SPI bus. Each child of the
SPI bus is a SPI slave. The information that was stored in the
driver-specific slave structure can now be port in private data for the
SPI bus.

For example, struct tegra_spi_slave looks like this:

struct tegra_spi_slave {
	struct spi_slave slave;
	struct tegra_spi_ctrl *ctrl;
};

In this case 'slave' will be in per-child data, and 'ctrl' will be in the
SPI's buses private data.


0. How long does this take?

You should be able to complete this within 2 hours, including testing but
excluding preparing the patches. The API is basically the same as before
with only minor changes:

- methods to set speed and mode are separated out
- cs_info is used to get information on a chip select


1. Enable driver mode for SPI and SPI flash

Add these to your board config:

43 44
CONFIG_DM_SPI
CONFIG_DM_SPI_FLASH
45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265


2. Add the skeleton

Put this code at the bottom of your existing driver file:

struct spi_slave *spi_setup_slave(unsigned int busnum, unsigned int cs,
			unsigned int max_hz, unsigned int mode)
{
	return NULL;
}

struct spi_slave *spi_setup_slave_fdt(const void *blob, int slave_node,
				      int spi_node)
{
	return NULL;
}

static int exynos_spi_ofdata_to_platdata(struct udevice *dev)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_probe(struct udevice *dev)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_remove(struct udevice *dev)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_claim_bus(struct udevice *dev)
{

	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_release_bus(struct udevice *dev)
{

	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_xfer(struct udevice *dev, unsigned int bitlen,
			    const void *dout, void *din, unsigned long flags)
{

	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_set_speed(struct udevice *dev, uint speed)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_spi_set_mode(struct udevice *dev, uint mode)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static int exynos_cs_info(struct udevice *bus, uint cs,
			  struct spi_cs_info *info)
{
	return -ENODEV;
}

static const struct dm_spi_ops exynos_spi_ops = {
	.claim_bus	= exynos_spi_claim_bus,
	.release_bus	= exynos_spi_release_bus,
	.xfer		= exynos_spi_xfer,
	.set_speed	= exynos_spi_set_speed,
	.set_mode	= exynos_spi_set_mode,
	.cs_info	= exynos_cs_info,
};

static const struct udevice_id exynos_spi_ids[] = {
	{ .compatible = "samsung,exynos-spi" },
	{ }
};

U_BOOT_DRIVER(exynos_spi) = {
	.name	= "exynos_spi",
	.id	= UCLASS_SPI,
	.of_match = exynos_spi_ids,
	.ops	= &exynos_spi_ops,
	.ofdata_to_platdata = exynos_spi_ofdata_to_platdata,
	.probe	= exynos_spi_probe,
	.remove	= exynos_spi_remove,
};


3. Replace 'exynos' in the above code with your driver name


4. #ifdef out all of the code in your driver except for the above

This will allow you to get it building, which means you can work
incrementally. Since all the methods return an error initially, there is
less chance that you will accidentally leave something in.

Also, even though your conversion is basically a rewrite, it might help
reviewers if you leave functions in the same place in the file,
particularly for large drivers.


5. Add some includes

Add these includes to your driver:

#include <dm.h>
#include <errno.h>


6. Build

At this point you should be able to build U-Boot for your board with the
empty SPI driver. You still have empty methods in your driver, but we will
write these one by one.

If you have spi_init() functions or the like that are called from your
board then the build will fail. Remove these calls and make a note of the
init that needs to be done.


7. Set up your platform data structure

This will hold the information your driver to operate, like its hardware
address or maximum frequency.

You may already have a struct like this, or you may need to create one
from some of the #defines or global variables in the driver.

Note that this information is not the run-time information. It should not
include state that changes. It should be fixed throughout the live of
U-Boot. Run-time information comes later.

Here is what was in the exynos spi driver:

struct spi_bus {
	enum periph_id periph_id;
	s32 frequency;		/* Default clock frequency, -1 for none */
	struct exynos_spi *regs;
	int inited;		/* 1 if this bus is ready for use */
	int node;
	uint deactivate_delay_us;	/* Delay to wait after deactivate */
};

Of these, inited is handled by DM and node is the device tree node, which
DM tells you. The name is not quite right. So in this case we would use:

struct exynos_spi_platdata {
	enum periph_id periph_id;
	s32 frequency;		/* Default clock frequency, -1 for none */
	struct exynos_spi *regs;
	uint deactivate_delay_us;	/* Delay to wait after deactivate */
};


8a. Write ofdata_to_platdata()   [for device tree only]

This method will convert information in the device tree node into a C
structure in your driver (called platform data). If you are not using
device tree, go to 8b.

DM will automatically allocate the struct for us when we are using device
tree, but we need to tell it the size:

U_BOOT_DRIVER(spi_exynos) = {
...
	.platdata_auto_alloc_size = sizeof(struct exynos_spi_platdata),


Here is a sample function. It gets a pointer to the platform data and
fills in the fields from device tree.

static int exynos_spi_ofdata_to_platdata(struct udevice *bus)
{
	struct exynos_spi_platdata *plat = bus->platdata;
	const void *blob = gd->fdt_blob;
	int node = bus->of_offset;

	plat->regs = (struct exynos_spi *)fdtdec_get_addr(blob, node, "reg");
	plat->periph_id = pinmux_decode_periph_id(blob, node);

	if (plat->periph_id == PERIPH_ID_NONE) {
		debug("%s: Invalid peripheral ID %d\n", __func__,
			plat->periph_id);
		return -FDT_ERR_NOTFOUND;
	}

	/* Use 500KHz as a suitable default */
	plat->frequency = fdtdec_get_int(blob, node, "spi-max-frequency",
					500000);
	plat->deactivate_delay_us = fdtdec_get_int(blob, node,
					"spi-deactivate-delay", 0);
	debug("%s: regs=%p, periph_id=%d, max-frequency=%d, deactivate_delay=%d\n",
	      __func__, plat->regs, plat->periph_id, plat->frequency,
              plat->deactivate_delay_us);

	return 0;
}


8b. Add the platform data  [non-device-tree only]

Specify this data in a U_BOOT_DEVICE() declaration in your board file:

struct exynos_spi_platdata platdata_spi0 = {
	.periph_id = ...
	.frequency = ...
	.regs = ...
	.deactivate_delay_us = ...
};

U_BOOT_DEVICE(board_spi0) = {
	.name = "exynos_spi",
	.platdata = &platdata_spi0,
};

266 267
You will unfortunately need to put the struct definition into a header file
in this case so that your board file can use it.
268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595


9. Add the device private data

Most devices have some private data which they use to keep track of things
while active. This is the run-time information and needs to be stored in
a structure. There is probably a structure in the driver that includes a
'struct spi_slave', so you can use that.

struct exynos_spi_slave {
	struct spi_slave slave;
	struct exynos_spi *regs;
	unsigned int freq;		/* Default frequency */
	unsigned int mode;
	enum periph_id periph_id;	/* Peripheral ID for this device */
	unsigned int fifo_size;
	int skip_preamble;
	struct spi_bus *bus;		/* Pointer to our SPI bus info */
	ulong last_transaction_us;	/* Time of last transaction end */
};


We should rename this to make its purpose more obvious, and get rid of
the slave structure, so we have:

struct exynos_spi_priv {
	struct exynos_spi *regs;
	unsigned int freq;		/* Default frequency */
	unsigned int mode;
	enum periph_id periph_id;	/* Peripheral ID for this device */
	unsigned int fifo_size;
	int skip_preamble;
	ulong last_transaction_us;	/* Time of last transaction end */
};


DM can auto-allocate this also:

U_BOOT_DRIVER(spi_exynos) = {
...
	.priv_auto_alloc_size = sizeof(struct exynos_spi_priv),


Note that this is created before the probe method is called, and destroyed
after the remove method is called. It will be zeroed when the probe
method is called.


10. Add the probe() and remove() methods

Note: It's a good idea to build repeatedly as you are working, to avoid a
huge amount of work getting things compiling at the end.

The probe method is supposed to set up the hardware. U-Boot used to use
spi_setup_slave() to do this. So take a look at this function and see
what you can copy out to set things up.


static int exynos_spi_probe(struct udevice *bus)
{
	struct exynos_spi_platdata *plat = dev_get_platdata(bus);
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);

	priv->regs = plat->regs;
	if (plat->periph_id == PERIPH_ID_SPI1 ||
	    plat->periph_id == PERIPH_ID_SPI2)
		priv->fifo_size = 64;
	else
		priv->fifo_size = 256;

	priv->skip_preamble = 0;
	priv->last_transaction_us = timer_get_us();
	priv->freq = plat->frequency;
	priv->periph_id = plat->periph_id;

	return 0;
}

This implementation doesn't actually touch the hardware, which is somewhat
unusual for a driver. In this case we will do that when the device is
claimed by something that wants to use the SPI bus.

For remove we could shut down the clocks, but in this case there is
nothing to do. DM frees any memory that it allocated, so we can just
remove exynos_spi_remove() and its reference in U_BOOT_DRIVER.


11. Implement set_speed()

This should set up clocks so that the SPI bus is running at the right
speed. With the old API spi_claim_bus() would normally do this and several
of the following functions, so let's look at that function:

int spi_claim_bus(struct spi_slave *slave)
{
	struct exynos_spi_slave *spi_slave = to_exynos_spi(slave);
	struct exynos_spi *regs = spi_slave->regs;
	u32 reg = 0;
	int ret;

	ret = set_spi_clk(spi_slave->periph_id,
					spi_slave->freq);
	if (ret < 0) {
		debug("%s: Failed to setup spi clock\n", __func__);
		return ret;
	}

	exynos_pinmux_config(spi_slave->periph_id, PINMUX_FLAG_NONE);

	spi_flush_fifo(slave);

	reg = readl(&regs->ch_cfg);
	reg &= ~(SPI_CH_CPHA_B | SPI_CH_CPOL_L);

	if (spi_slave->mode & SPI_CPHA)
		reg |= SPI_CH_CPHA_B;

	if (spi_slave->mode & SPI_CPOL)
		reg |= SPI_CH_CPOL_L;

	writel(reg, &regs->ch_cfg);
	writel(SPI_FB_DELAY_180, &regs->fb_clk);

	return 0;
}


It sets up the speed, mode, pinmux, feedback delay and clears the FIFOs.
With DM these will happen in separate methods.


Here is an example for the speed part:

static int exynos_spi_set_speed(struct udevice *bus, uint speed)
{
	struct exynos_spi_platdata *plat = bus->platdata;
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);
	int ret;

	if (speed > plat->frequency)
		speed = plat->frequency;
	ret = set_spi_clk(priv->periph_id, speed);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
	priv->freq = speed;
	debug("%s: regs=%p, speed=%d\n", __func__, priv->regs, priv->freq);

	return 0;
}


12. Implement set_mode()

This should adjust the SPI mode (polarity, etc.). Again this code probably
comes from the old spi_claim_bus(). Here is an example:


static int exynos_spi_set_mode(struct udevice *bus, uint mode)
{
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);
	uint32_t reg;

	reg = readl(&priv->regs->ch_cfg);
	reg &= ~(SPI_CH_CPHA_B | SPI_CH_CPOL_L);

	if (mode & SPI_CPHA)
		reg |= SPI_CH_CPHA_B;

	if (mode & SPI_CPOL)
		reg |= SPI_CH_CPOL_L;

	writel(reg, &priv->regs->ch_cfg);
	priv->mode = mode;
	debug("%s: regs=%p, mode=%d\n", __func__, priv->regs, priv->mode);

	return 0;
}


13. Implement claim_bus()

This is where a client wants to make use of the bus, so claims it first.
At this point we need to make sure everything is set up ready for data
transfer. Note that this function is wholly internal to the driver - at
present the SPI uclass never calls it.

Here again we look at the old claim function and see some code that is
needed. It is anything unrelated to speed and mode:

static int exynos_spi_claim_bus(struct udevice *bus)
{
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);

	exynos_pinmux_config(priv->periph_id, PINMUX_FLAG_NONE);
	spi_flush_fifo(priv->regs);

	writel(SPI_FB_DELAY_180, &priv->regs->fb_clk);

	return 0;
}

The spi_flush_fifo() function is in the removed part of the code, so we
need to expose it again (perhaps with an #endif before it and '#if 0'
after it). It only needs access to priv->regs which is why we have
passed that in:

/**
 * Flush spi tx, rx fifos and reset the SPI controller
 *
 * @param regs	Pointer to SPI registers
 */
static void spi_flush_fifo(struct exynos_spi *regs)
{
	clrsetbits_le32(&regs->ch_cfg, SPI_CH_HS_EN, SPI_CH_RST);
	clrbits_le32(&regs->ch_cfg, SPI_CH_RST);
	setbits_le32(&regs->ch_cfg, SPI_TX_CH_ON | SPI_RX_CH_ON);
}


14. Implement release_bus()

This releases the bus - in our example the old code in spi_release_bus()
is a call to spi_flush_fifo, so we add:

static int exynos_spi_release_bus(struct udevice *bus)
{
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);

	spi_flush_fifo(priv->regs);

	return 0;
}


15. Implement xfer()

This is the final method that we need to create, and it is where all the
work happens. The method parameters are the same as the old spi_xfer() with
the addition of a 'struct udevice' so conversion is pretty easy. Start
by copying the contents of spi_xfer() to your new xfer() method and proceed
from there.

If (flags & SPI_XFER_BEGIN) is non-zero then xfer() normally calls an
activate function, something like this:

void spi_cs_activate(struct spi_slave *slave)
{
	struct exynos_spi_slave *spi_slave = to_exynos_spi(slave);

	/* If it's too soon to do another transaction, wait */
	if (spi_slave->bus->deactivate_delay_us &&
	    spi_slave->last_transaction_us) {
		ulong delay_us;		/* The delay completed so far */
		delay_us = timer_get_us() - spi_slave->last_transaction_us;
		if (delay_us < spi_slave->bus->deactivate_delay_us)
			udelay(spi_slave->bus->deactivate_delay_us - delay_us);
	}

	clrbits_le32(&spi_slave->regs->cs_reg, SPI_SLAVE_SIG_INACT);
	debug("Activate CS, bus %d\n", spi_slave->slave.bus);
	spi_slave->skip_preamble = spi_slave->mode & SPI_PREAMBLE;
}

The new version looks like this:

static void spi_cs_activate(struct udevice *dev)
{
	struct udevice *bus = dev->parent;
	struct exynos_spi_platdata *pdata = dev_get_platdata(bus);
	struct exynos_spi_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(bus);

	/* If it's too soon to do another transaction, wait */
	if (pdata->deactivate_delay_us &&
	    priv->last_transaction_us) {
		ulong delay_us;		/* The delay completed so far */
		delay_us = timer_get_us() - priv->last_transaction_us;
		if (delay_us < pdata->deactivate_delay_us)
			udelay(pdata->deactivate_delay_us - delay_us);
	}

	clrbits_le32(&priv->regs->cs_reg, SPI_SLAVE_SIG_INACT);
	debug("Activate CS, bus '%s'\n", bus->name);
	priv->skip_preamble = priv->mode & SPI_PREAMBLE;
}

All we have really done here is change the pointers and print the device name
instead of the bus number. Other local static functions can be treated in
the same way.


16. Set up the per-child data and child pre-probe function

To minimise the pain and complexity of the SPI subsystem while the driver
model change-over is in place, struct spi_slave is used to reference a
SPI bus slave, even though that slave is actually a struct udevice. In fact
struct spi_slave is the device's child data. We need to make sure this space
is available. It is possible to allocate more space that struct spi_slave
needs, but this is the minimum.

U_BOOT_DRIVER(exynos_spi) = {
...
	.per_child_auto_alloc_size	= sizeof(struct spi_slave),
}


17. Optional: Set up cs_info() if you want it

Sometimes it is useful to know whether a SPI chip select is valid, but this
is not obvious from outside the driver. In this case you can provide a
method for cs_info() to deal with this. If you don't provide it, then the
device tree will be used to determine what chip selects are valid.

Return -ENODEV if the supplied chip select is invalid, or 0 if it is valid.
If you don't provide the cs_info() method, -ENODEV is assumed for all
chip selects that do not appear in the device tree.


18. Test it

Now that you have the code written and it compiles, try testing it using
the 'sf test' command. You may need to enable CONFIG_CMD_SF_TEST for your
board.


19. Prepare patches and send them to the mailing lists

You can use 'tools/patman/patman' to prepare, check and send patches for
your work. See the README for details.
596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628

20. A little note about SPI uclass features:

The SPI uclass keeps some information about each device 'dev' on the bus:

   struct dm_spi_slave_platdata - this is device_get_parent_platdata(dev)
		This is where the chip select number is stored, along with
		the default bus speed and mode. It is automatically read
		from the device tree in spi_child_post_bind(). It must not
		be changed at run-time after being set up because platform
		data is supposed to be immutable at run-time.
   struct spi_slave - this is device_get_parentdata(dev)
		Already mentioned above. It holds run-time information about
		the device.

There are also some SPI uclass methods that get called behind the scenes:

   spi_post_bind() - called when a new bus is bound
		This scans the device tree for devices on the bus, and binds
		each one. This in turn causes spi_child_post_bind() to be
		called for each, which reads the device tree information
		into the parent (per-child) platform data.
   spi_child_post_bind() - called when a new child is bound
		As mentioned above this reads the device tree information
		into the per-child platform data
   spi_child_pre_probe() - called before a new child is probed
		This sets up the mode and speed in struct spi_slave by
		copying it from the parent's platform data for this child.
		It also sets the 'dev' pointer, needed to permit passing
		'struct spi_slave' around the place without needing a
		separate 'struct udevice' pointer.

The above housekeeping makes it easier to write your SPI driver.