Commit 6f4e7d3c authored by Thomas Gleixner's avatar Thomas Gleixner Committed by Tom Rini

spl: Lightweight UBI and UBI fastmap support

Booting a payload out of NAND FLASH from the SPL is a crux today, as
it requires hard partioned FLASH. Not a brilliant idea with the
reliability of todays NAND FLASH chips.

The upstream UBI + UBI fastmap implementation which is about to
brought to u-boot is too heavy weight for SPLs as it provides way more
functionality than needed for a SPL and does not even fit into the
restricted SPL areas which are loaded from the SoC boot ROM.

So this provides a fast and lightweight implementation of UBI scanning
and UBI fastmap attach. The scan and logical to physical block mapping
code is developed from scratch, while the fastmap implementation is
lifted from the linux kernel source and stripped down to fit the SPL

The text foot print on the board which I used for development is:

6854	0	0	6854	1abd

Attaching a NAND chip with 4096 physical eraseblocks (4 blocks are
reserved for the SPL) takes:

In full scan mode:      1172ms
In fastmap mode:          95ms

The code requires quite some storage. The largest and unknown part of
it is the number of fastmap blocks to read. Therefor the data
structure is not put into the BSS. The code requires a pointer to free
memory handed in which is initialized by the UBI attach code itself.

See doc/README.ubispl for further information on how to use it.

This shares the ubi-media.h and crc32 implementation of drivers/mtd/ubi
There is no way to share the fastmap code, as UBISPL only utilizes the
slightly modified functions ubi_attach_fastmap() and ubi_scan_fastmap()
from the original kernel ubi fastmap implementation.
Signed-off-by: 's avatarThomas Gleixner <>
Signed-off-by: 's avatarLadislav Michl <>
Acked-by: 's avatarHeiko Schocher <>
Reviewed-by: 's avatarTom Rini <>
parent 735717d1
......@@ -3583,6 +3583,10 @@ FIT uImage format:
Support for NAND boot using simple NAND drivers that
expose the cmd_ctrl() interface.
Support for a lightweight UBI (fastmap) scanner and
Support for the MTD subsystem within SPL. Useful for
environment on NAND support within SPL.
Lightweight UBI and UBI fastmap support
# Copyright (C) Thomas Gleixner <>
# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL 2.0+ BSD-3-Clause
Scans the UBI information and loads the requested static volumes into
Configuration Options:
Enables the SPL UBI support
The maximum number of logical eraseblocks which a static volume
to load can contain. Used for sizing the scan data structure
The maximum physical erase block size. Either a compile time
constant or runtime detection. Used for sizing the scan data
The maximum physical erase block count. Either a compile time
constant or runtime detection. Used for sizing the scan data
The maximum volume ids which can be loaded. Used for sizing the
scan data structure.
Usage notes:
In the board config file define for example:
#define CONFIG_SPL_UBI_MAX_PEB_SIZE (256*1024)
The size requirement is roughly as follows:
2k for the basic data structure
The last one is big, but I really don't care in that stage. Real world
implementations only use the first couple of blocks, but the code
handles up to UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS.
Given the above configuration example the requirement is about 5M
which is usually not a problem to reserve in the RAM along with the
other areas like the kernel/dts load address.
So something like this will do the trick:
#define SPL_FINFO_ADDR 0x80800000
#define SPL_DTB_LOAD_ADDR 0x81800000
#define SPL_KERNEL_LOAD_ADDR 0x82000000
In the board file, implement the following:
static struct ubispl_load myvolumes[] = {
.vol_id = 0, /* kernel volume */
.load_addr = (void *)SPL_KERNEL_LOAD_ADDR,
.vol_id = 1, /* DT blob */
.load_addr = (void *)SPL_DTB_LOAD_ADDR,
int spl_start_uboot(void)
struct ubispl_info info;
info.ubi = (struct ubi_scan_info *) SPL_FINFO_ADDR;
info.fastmap = 1; = nand_spl_read_flash;
* MY_NAND_NR_SPL_PEBS is the number of physical erase blocks
* in the FLASH which are reserved for the SPL. Think about
* mtd partitions:
* part_spl { .start = 0, .end = 4 }
* part_ubi { .start = 4, .end = NR_PEBS }
info.peb_offset = MY_NAND_NR_SPL_PEBS;
info.vid_offset = MY_NAND_UBI_VID_OFFS;
info.leb_start = MY_NAND_UBI_DATA_OFFS;
info.peb_count = MY_NAND_UBI_NUM_PEBS;
info.peb_offset = MY_NAND_NR_SPL_PEBS;
info.peb_size = flash_info.peb_size;
* The VID and Data offset depend on the capability of the
* FLASH chip to do subpage writes.
* If the flash chip supports subpage writes, then the VID
* header starts at the second subpage. So for 2k pages size
* with 4 subpages the VID offset is 512. The DATA offset is 2k.
* If the flash chip does not support subpage writes then the
* VID offset is FLASH_PAGE_SIZE and the DATA offset
info.vid_offset = flash_info.vid_offset;
info.leb_start = flash_info.data_offset;
* The flash reports the total number of erase blocks, so
* we need to subtract the number of blocks which are reserved
* for the SPL itself and not managed by UBI.
info.peb_count = flash_info.peb_count - MY_NAND_NR_SPL_PEBS;
ret = ubispl_load_volumes(&info, myvolumes, ARRAY_SIZE(myvolumes);
Note: you can load any payload that way. You can even load u-boot from
UBI, so the only non UBI managed FLASH area is the one which is
reserved for the SPL itself and read from the SoC ROM.
And you can do fallback scenarios:
if (ubispl_load_volumes(&info, volumes0, ARRAY_SIZE(volumes0)))
if (ubispl_load_volumes(&info, volumes1, ARRAY_SIZE(volumes1)))
ubispl_load_volumes(&info, vol_uboot, ARRAY_SIZE(vol_uboot));
......@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_SPL_MTD_SUPPORT) += mtd/
obj-$(CONFIG_SPL_NAND_SUPPORT) += mtd/nand/
obj-$(CONFIG_SPL_ONENAND_SUPPORT) += mtd/onenand/
obj-$(CONFIG_SPL_UBI) += mtd/ubispl/
obj-$(CONFIG_SPL_ETH_SUPPORT) += net/phy/
obj-y += ubispl.o ../ubi/crc32.o
* The parts taken from the kernel implementation are:
* Copyright (c) International Business Machines Corp., 2006
* UBISPL specific defines:
* Copyright (c) Thomas Gleixner <>
* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL 2.0+ BSD-3-Clause
* Contains various defines copy&pasted from ubi.h and ubi-user.h to make
* the upstream fastboot code happy.
* Error codes returned by the I/O sub-system.
* UBI_IO_FF: the read region of flash contains only 0xFFs
* UBI_IO_FF_BITFLIPS: the same as %UBI_IO_FF, but also also there was a data
* integrity error reported by the MTD driver
* (uncorrectable ECC error in case of NAND)
* UBI_IO_BAD_HDR: the EC or VID header is corrupted (bad magic or CRC)
* UBI_IO_BAD_HDR_EBADMSG: the same as %UBI_IO_BAD_HDR, but also there was a
* data integrity error reported by the MTD driver
* (uncorrectable ECC error in case of NAND)
* UBI_IO_BITFLIPS: bit-flips were detected and corrected
* UBI_FASTMAP_ANCHOR: u-boot SPL add on to tell the caller that the fastmap
* anchor block has been found
* Note, it is probably better to have bit-flip and ebadmsg as flags which can
* be or'ed with other error code. But this is a big change because there are
* may callers, so it does not worth the risk of introducing a bug
enum {
UBI_IO_FF = 1,
* UBI volume type constants.
* @UBI_DYNAMIC_VOLUME: dynamic volume
* @UBI_STATIC_VOLUME: static volume
enum {
* Return codes of the fastmap sub-system
* UBI_NO_FASTMAP: No fastmap super block was found
* UBI_BAD_FASTMAP: A fastmap was found but it's unusable
enum {
* struct ubi_fastmap_layout - in-memory fastmap data structure.
* @e: PEBs used by the current fastmap
* @to_be_tortured: if non-zero tortured this PEB
* @used_blocks: number of used PEBs
* @max_pool_size: maximal size of the user pool
* @max_wl_pool_size: maximal size of the pool used by the WL sub-system
struct ubi_fastmap_layout {
struct ubi_wl_entry *e[UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS];
int to_be_tortured[UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS];
int used_blocks;
int max_pool_size;
int max_wl_pool_size;
* struct ubi_fm_pool - in-memory fastmap pool
* @pebs: PEBs in this pool
* @used: number of used PEBs
* @size: total number of PEBs in this pool
* @max_size: maximal size of the pool
* A pool gets filled with up to max_size.
* If all PEBs within the pool are used a new fastmap will be written
* to the flash and the pool gets refilled with empty PEBs.
struct ubi_fm_pool {
int used;
int size;
int max_size;
This diff is collapsed.
* Copyright (c) Thomas Gleixner <>
* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL 2.0+ BSD-3-Clause
#include "../ubi/ubi-media.h"
#include "ubi-wrapper.h"
* The maximum number of volume ids we scan. So you can load volume id
* The size of the read buffer for the fastmap blocks. In theory up to
* one or two blocks.
* The size of the bitmaps for the attach/ scan
* The maximum number of logical erase blocks per loadable volume
* The bitmap size for the above to denote the found blocks inside the volume
* struct ubi_vol_info - UBISPL internal volume represenation
* @last_block: The last block (highest LEB) found for this volume
* @found: Bitmap to mark found LEBS
* @lebs_to_pebs: LEB to PEB translation table
struct ubi_vol_info {
u32 last_block;
unsigned long found[UBI_VOL_BM_SIZE];
u32 lebs_to_pebs[UBI_MAX_VOL_LEBS];
* struct ubi_scan_info - UBISPL internal data for FM attach and full scan
* @read: Read function to access the flash provided by the caller
* @peb_count: Number of physical erase blocks in the UBI FLASH area
* aka MTD partition.
* @peb_offset: Offset of PEB0 in the UBI FLASH area (aka MTD partition)
* to the real start of the FLASH in erase blocks.
* @fsize_mb: Size of the scanned FLASH area in MB (stats only)
* @vid_offset: Offset from the start of a PEB to the VID header
* @leb_start: Offset from the start of a PEB to the data area
* @leb_size: Size of the data area
* @fastmap_pebs: Counter of PEBs "attached" by fastmap
* @fastmap_anchor: The anchor PEB of the fastmap
* @fm_sb: The fastmap super block data
* @fm_vh: The fastmap VID header
* @fm: Pointer to the fastmap layout
* @fm_layout: The fastmap layout itself
* @fm_pool: The pool of PEBs to scan at fastmap attach time
* @fm_wl_pool: The pool of PEBs scheduled for wearleveling
* @fm_enabled: Indicator whether fastmap attachment is enabled.
* @fm_used: Bitmap to indicate the PEBS covered by fastmap
* @scanned: Bitmap to indicate the PEBS of which the VID header
* hase been physically scanned.
* @corrupt: Bitmap to indicate corrupt blocks
* @toload: Bitmap to indicate the volumes which should be loaded
* @blockinfo: The vid headers of the scanned blocks
* @volinfo: The volume information of the interesting (toload)
* volumes
* @fm_buf: The large fastmap attach buffer
struct ubi_scan_info {
ubispl_read_flash read;
unsigned int fsize_mb;
unsigned int peb_count;
unsigned int peb_offset;
unsigned long vid_offset;
unsigned long leb_start;
unsigned long leb_size;
/* Fastmap: The upstream required fields */
int fastmap_pebs;
int fastmap_anchor;
size_t fm_size;
struct ubi_fm_sb fm_sb;
struct ubi_vid_hdr fm_vh;
struct ubi_fastmap_layout *fm;
struct ubi_fastmap_layout fm_layout;
struct ubi_fm_pool fm_pool;
struct ubi_fm_pool fm_wl_pool;
/* Fastmap: UBISPL specific data */
int fm_enabled;
unsigned long fm_used[UBI_FM_BM_SIZE];
unsigned long scanned[UBI_FM_BM_SIZE];
unsigned long corrupt[UBI_FM_BM_SIZE];
unsigned long toload[UBI_FM_BM_SIZE];
/* Data for storing the VID and volume information */
struct ubi_vol_info volinfo[UBI_SPL_VOL_IDS];
struct ubi_vid_hdr blockinfo[CONFIG_SPL_UBI_MAX_PEBS];
/* The large buffer for the fastmap */
uint8_t fm_buf[UBI_FM_BUF_SIZE];
#ifdef CFG_DEBUG
#define ubi_dbg(fmt, ...) printf("UBI: debug:" fmt "\n", ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define ubi_dbg(fmt, ...)
#define ubi_msg(fmt, ...)
#define ubi_msg(fmt, ...) printf("UBI: " fmt "\n", ##__VA_ARGS__)
/* UBI warning messages */
#define ubi_warn(fmt, ...) printf("UBI warning: " fmt "\n", ##__VA_ARGS__)
/* UBI error messages */
#define ubi_err(fmt, ...) printf("UBI error: " fmt "\n", ##__VA_ARGS__)
* Copyright (c) Thomas Gleixner <>
* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL 2.0+ BSD-3-Clause
#ifndef __UBOOT_UBISPL_H
#define __UBOOT_UBISPL_H
* The following CONFIG options are relevant for UBISPL
* Defines the maximum number of logical erase blocks per loadable
* (static) volume to size the ubispl internal arrays.
* #define CONFIG_SPL_UBI_MAX_PEB_SIZE (256*1024)
* Defines the maximum physical erase block size to size the fastmap
* buffer for ubispl.
* #define CONFIG_SPL_UBI_MAX_PEBS 4096
* Define the maximum number of physical erase blocks to size the
* ubispl internal arrays.
* Defines the maximum number of volumes in which UBISPL is
* interested. Limits the amount of memory for the scan data and
* speeds up the scan process as we simply ignore stuff which we dont
* want to load from the SPL anyway. So the volumes which can be
* loaded in the above example are ids 0 - 7
* The struct definition is in drivers/mtd/ubispl/ubispl.h. It does
* not fit into the BSS due to the large buffer requirement of the
* upstream fastmap code. So the caller of ubispl_load_volumes needs
* to hand in a pointer to a free memory area where ubispl will place
* its data. The area is not required to be initialized.
struct ubi_scan_info;
typedef int (*ubispl_read_flash)(int pnum, int offset, int len, void *dst);
* struct ubispl_info - description structure for fast ubi scan
* @ubi: Pointer to memory space for ubi scan info structure
* @peb_size: Physical erase block size
* @vid_offset: Offset of the VID header
* @leb_start: Start of the logical erase block, i.e. offset of data
* @peb_count: Number of physical erase blocks in the UBI FLASH area
* aka MTD partition.
* @peb_offset: Offset of PEB0 in the UBI FLASH area (aka MTD partition)
* to the real start of the FLASH in erase blocks.
* @fastmap: Enable fastmap attachment
* @read: Read function to access the flash
struct ubispl_info {
struct ubi_scan_info *ubi;
u32 peb_size;
u32 vid_offset;
u32 leb_start;
u32 peb_count;
u32 peb_offset;
int fastmap;
ubispl_read_flash read;
* struct ubispl_load - structure to describe a volume to load
* @vol_id: Volume id
* @load_addr: Load address of the volume
struct ubispl_load {
int vol_id;
void *load_addr;
* ubispl_load_volumes - Scan flash and load volumes
* @info: Pointer to the ubi scan info structure
* @lovls: Pointer to array of volumes to load
* @nrvols: Array size of @lovls
int ubispl_load_volumes(struct ubispl_info *info,
struct ubispl_load *lvols, int nrvols);
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