Commit b725dc45 authored by Simon Glass's avatar Simon Glass

i2c: Add a mux for GPIO-based I2C bus arbitration

While I2C supports multi-master buses this is difficult to get right.
The implementation on the master side in software is quite complex.
Clock-stretching and the arbitrary time that an I2C transaction can take
make it difficult to share the bus fairly in the face of high traffic.
When one or more masters can be reset independently part-way through a
transaction it is hard to know the state of the bus.

This driver provides a scheme based on two 'claim' GPIOs, one driven by the
AP (Application Processor, meaning the main CPU) and one driven by the EC
(Embedded Controller, a small CPU aimed at handling system tasks). With
these they can communicate and reliably share the bus. This scheme has
minimal overhead and involves very little code. It is used on snow to
permit the EC and the AP to share access to the main system PMIC and
battery. The scheme can survive reboots by either side without difficulty.
This scheme has been tested in the field with millions of devices.

Since U-Boot runs on the AP, the terminology used is 'our' claim GPIO,
meaning the AP's, and 'their' claim GPIO, meaning the EC's. This terminology
is used by the device tree bindings in Linux also.
Signed-off-by: 's avatarSimon Glass <sjg@chromium.org>
parent 3d1957f0
I2C Bus Arbitration
===================
While I2C supports multi-master buses this is difficult to get right.
The implementation on the master side in software is quite complex.
Clock-stretching and the arbitrary time that an I2C transaction can take
make it difficult to share the bus fairly in the face of high traffic.
When one or more masters can be reset independently part-way through a
transaction it is hard to know the state of the bus.
U-Boot provides a scheme based on two 'claim' GPIOs, one driven by the
AP (Application Processor, meaning the main CPU) and one driven by the EC
(Embedded Controller, a small CPU aimed at handling system tasks). With
these they can communicate and reliably share the bus. This scheme has
minimal overhead and involves very little code. The scheme can survive
reboots by either side without difficulty.
Since U-Boot runs on the AP, the terminology used is 'our' claim GPIO,
meaning the AP's, and 'their' claim GPIO, meaning the EC's. This terminology
is used by the device tree bindings in Linux also.
The driver is implemented as an I2C mux, as it is in Linux. See
i2c-arb-gpio-challenge for the implementation.
GPIO lines are shared between the AP and EC to manage the bus. The AP and EC
each have a 'bus claim' line, which is an output that the other can see.
- AP_CLAIM: output from AP, signalling to the EC that the AP wants the bus
- EC_CLAIM: output from EC, signalling to the AP that the EC wants the bus
The basic algorithm is to assert your line when you want the bus, then make
sure that the other side doesn't want it also. A detailed explanation is best
done with an example.
Let's say the AP wants to claim the bus. It:
1. Asserts AP_CLAIM
2. Waits a little bit for the other side to notice (slew time)
3. Checks EC_CLAIM. If this is not asserted, then the AP has the bus, and we
are done
4. Otherwise, wait for a few milliseconds (retry time) and see if EC_CLAIM is
released
5. If not, back off, release the claim and wait for a few more milliseconds
(retry time again)
6. Go back to 1 if things don't look wedged (wait time has expired)
7. Panic. The other side is hung with the CLAIM line set.
The same algorithm applies on the EC.
To release the bus, just de-assert the claim line.
Typical delays are:
- slew time 10 us
- retry time 3 ms
- wait time - 50ms
In general the traffic is fairly light, and in particular the EC wants access
to the bus quite rarely (maybe every 10s or 30s to check the battery). This
scheme works very nicely with very low contention. There is only a 10 us
wait for access to the bus assuming that the other side isn't using it.
......@@ -6,3 +6,12 @@ config I2C_MUX
one of several buses using some sort of control mechanism. The
bus select is handled automatically when that bus is accessed,
using a suitable I2C MUX driver.
config I2C_ARB_GPIO_CHALLENGE
bool "GPIO-based I2C arbitration"
depends on I2C_MUX
help
If you say yes to this option, support will be included for an
I2C multimaster arbitration scheme using GPIOs and a challenge &
response mechanism where masters have to claim the bus by asserting
a GPIO.
......@@ -3,4 +3,5 @@
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
obj-$(CONFIG_I2C_ARB_GPIO_CHALLENGE) += i2c-arb-gpio-challenge.o
obj-$(CONFIG_I2C_MUX) += i2c-mux-uclass.o
/*
* Copyright (c) 2015 Google, Inc
* Written by Simon Glass <sjg@chromium.org>
*
* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
*/
#include <common.h>
#include <dm.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <i2c.h>
#include <asm/gpio.h>
DECLARE_GLOBAL_DATA_PTR;
struct i2c_arbitrator_priv {
struct gpio_desc ap_claim;
struct gpio_desc ec_claim;
uint slew_delay_us;
uint wait_retry_ms;
uint wait_free_ms;
};
int i2c_arbitrator_deselect(struct udevice *mux, struct udevice *bus,
uint channel)
{
struct i2c_arbitrator_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(mux);
int ret;
debug("%s: %s\n", __func__, mux->name);
ret = dm_gpio_set_value(&priv->ap_claim, 0);
udelay(priv->slew_delay_us);
return ret;
}
int i2c_arbitrator_select(struct udevice *mux, struct udevice *bus,
uint channel)
{
struct i2c_arbitrator_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(mux);
unsigned start;
int ret;
debug("%s: %s\n", __func__, mux->name);
/* Start a round of trying to claim the bus */
start = get_timer(0);
do {
unsigned start_retry;
int waiting = 0;
/* Indicate that we want to claim the bus */
ret = dm_gpio_set_value(&priv->ap_claim, 1);
if (ret)
goto err;
udelay(priv->slew_delay_us);
/* Wait for the EC to release it */
start_retry = get_timer(0);
while (get_timer(start_retry) < priv->wait_retry_ms) {
ret = dm_gpio_get_value(&priv->ec_claim);
if (ret < 0) {
goto err;
} else if (!ret) {
/* We got it, so return */
return 0;
}
if (!waiting)
waiting = 1;
}
/* It didn't release, so give up, wait, and try again */
ret = dm_gpio_set_value(&priv->ap_claim, 0);
if (ret)
goto err;
mdelay(priv->wait_retry_ms);
} while (get_timer(start) < priv->wait_free_ms);
/* Give up, release our claim */
printf("I2C: Could not claim bus, timeout %lu\n", get_timer(start));
ret = -ETIMEDOUT;
ret = 0;
err:
return ret;
}
static int i2c_arbitrator_probe(struct udevice *dev)
{
struct i2c_arbitrator_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(dev);
const void *blob = gd->fdt_blob;
int node = dev->of_offset;
int ret;
debug("%s: %s\n", __func__, dev->name);
priv->slew_delay_us = fdtdec_get_int(blob, node, "slew-delay-us", 0);
priv->wait_retry_ms = fdtdec_get_int(blob, node, "wait-retry-us", 0) /
1000;
priv->wait_free_ms = fdtdec_get_int(blob, node, "wait-free-us", 0) /
1000;
ret = gpio_request_by_name(dev, "our-claim-gpio", 0, &priv->ap_claim,
GPIOD_IS_OUT);
if (ret)
goto err;
ret = gpio_request_by_name(dev, "their-claim-gpios", 0, &priv->ec_claim,
GPIOD_IS_IN);
if (ret)
goto err_ec_gpio;
return 0;
err_ec_gpio:
dm_gpio_free(dev, &priv->ap_claim);
err:
debug("%s: ret=%d\n", __func__, ret);
return ret;
}
static int i2c_arbitrator_remove(struct udevice *dev)
{
struct i2c_arbitrator_priv *priv = dev_get_priv(dev);
dm_gpio_free(dev, &priv->ap_claim);
dm_gpio_free(dev, &priv->ec_claim);
return 0;
}
static const struct i2c_mux_ops i2c_arbitrator_ops = {
.select = i2c_arbitrator_select,
.deselect = i2c_arbitrator_deselect,
};
static const struct udevice_id i2c_arbitrator_ids[] = {
{ .compatible = "i2c-arb-gpio-challenge" },
{ }
};
U_BOOT_DRIVER(i2c_arbitrator) = {
.name = "i2c_arbitrator",
.id = UCLASS_I2C_MUX,
.of_match = i2c_arbitrator_ids,
.probe = i2c_arbitrator_probe,
.remove = i2c_arbitrator_remove,
.ops = &i2c_arbitrator_ops,
.priv_auto_alloc_size = sizeof(struct i2c_arbitrator_priv),
};
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