1. 04 Apr, 2016 1 commit
    • Kirill A. Shutemov's avatar
      mm, fs: get rid of PAGE_CACHE_* and page_cache_{get,release} macros · 09cbfeaf
      Kirill A. Shutemov authored
      PAGE_CACHE_{SIZE,SHIFT,MASK,ALIGN} macros were introduced *long* time
      ago with promise that one day it will be possible to implement page
      cache with bigger chunks than PAGE_SIZE.
      This promise never materialized.  And unlikely will.
      We have many places where PAGE_CACHE_SIZE assumed to be equal to
      PAGE_SIZE.  And it's constant source of confusion on whether
      PAGE_CACHE_* or PAGE_* constant should be used in a particular case,
      especially on the border between fs and mm.
      Global switching to PAGE_CACHE_SIZE != PAGE_SIZE would cause to much
      breakage to be doable.
      Let's stop pretending that pages in page cache are special.  They are
      The changes are pretty straight-forward:
       - <foo> << (PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT) -> <foo>;
       - <foo> >> (PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT) -> <foo>;
       - page_cache_get() -> get_page();
       - page_cache_release() -> put_page();
      This patch contains automated changes generated with coccinelle using
      script below.  For some reason, coccinelle doesn't patch header files.
      I've called spatch for them manually.
      The only adjustment after coccinelle is revert of changes to
      PAGE_CAHCE_ALIGN definition: we are going to drop it later.
      There are few places in the code where coccinelle didn't reach.  I'll
      fix them manually in a separate patch.  Comments and documentation also
      will be addressed with the separate patch.
      virtual patch
      expression E;
      + E
      expression E;
      + E
      + PAGE_SHIFT
      + PAGE_SIZE
      + PAGE_MASK
      expression E;
      + PAGE_ALIGN(E)
      expression E;
      - page_cache_get(E)
      + get_page(E)
      expression E;
      - page_cache_release(E)
      + put_page(E)
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  2. 17 Feb, 2016 1 commit
  3. 26 Nov, 2015 1 commit
    • Martin K. Petersen's avatar
      block/sd: Fix device-imposed transfer length limits · ca369d51
      Martin K. Petersen authored
      Commit 4f258a46
       ("sd: Fix maximum I/O size for BLOCK_PC requests")
      had the unfortunate side-effect of removing an implicit clamp to
      BLK_DEF_MAX_SECTORS for REQ_TYPE_FS requests in the block layer
      code. This caused problems for some SMR drives.
      Debugging this issue revealed a few problems with the existing
      infrastructure since the block layer didn't know how to deal with
      device-imposed limits, only limits set by the I/O controller.
       - Introduce a new queue limit, max_dev_sectors, which is used by the
         ULD to signal the maximum sectors for a REQ_TYPE_FS request.
       - Ensure that max_dev_sectors is correctly stacked and taken into
         account when overriding max_sectors through sysfs.
       - Rework sd_read_block_limits() so it saves the max_xfer and opt_xfer
         values for later processing.
       - In sd_revalidate() set the queue's max_dev_sectors based on the
         MAXIMUM TRANSFER LENGTH value in the Block Limits VPD. If this value
         is not reported, fall back to a cap based on the CDB TRANSFER LENGTH
         field size.
       - In sd_revalidate(), use OPTIMAL TRANSFER LENGTH from the Block Limits
         VPD--if reported and sane--to signal the preferred device transfer
         size for FS requests. Otherwise use BLK_DEF_MAX_SECTORS.
       - blk_limits_max_hw_sectors() is no longer used and can be removed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMartin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
      Bugzilla: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=93581
      Reviewed-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Tested-by: sweeneygj@gmx.com
      Tested-by: default avatarArzeets <anatol.pomozov@gmail.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarDavid Eisner <david.eisner@oriel.oxon.org>
      Tested-by: default avatarMario Kicherer <dev@kicherer.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMartin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
  4. 07 Nov, 2015 1 commit
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      block: add block polling support · 05229bee
      Jens Axboe authored
      Add basic support for polling for specific IO to complete. This uses
      the cookie that blk-mq passes back, which enables the block layer
      to pass this cookie to the driver to spin for a specific request.
      This will be combined with request latency tracking, so we can make
      qualified decisions about when to poll and when not to. For now, for
      benchmark purposes, we add a sysfs file that controls whether polling
      is enabled or not.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Acked-by: default avatarKeith Busch <keith.busch@intel.com>
  5. 21 Oct, 2015 1 commit
    • Dan Williams's avatar
      block: generic request_queue reference counting · 3ef28e83
      Dan Williams authored
      Allow pmem, and other synchronous/bio-based block drivers, to fallback
      on a per-cpu reference count managed by the core for tracking queue
      live/dead state.
      The existing per-cpu reference count for the blk_mq case is promoted to
      be used in all block i/o scenarios.  This involves initializing it by
      default, waiting for it to drop to zero at exit, and holding a live
      reference over the invocation of q->make_request_fn() in
      generic_make_request().  The blk_mq code continues to take its own
      reference per blk_mq request and retains the ability to freeze the
      queue, but the check that the queue is frozen is moved to
      This fixes crash signatures like the following:
       BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at ffff880140000000
       Call Trace:
        [<ffffffff8145e8bf>] ? copy_user_handle_tail+0x5f/0x70
        [<ffffffffa004e1e0>] pmem_do_bvec.isra.11+0x70/0xf0 [nd_pmem]
        [<ffffffffa004e331>] pmem_make_request+0xd1/0x200 [nd_pmem]
        [<ffffffff811c3162>] ? mempool_alloc+0x72/0x1a0
        [<ffffffff8141f8b6>] generic_make_request+0xd6/0x110
        [<ffffffff8141f966>] submit_bio+0x76/0x170
        [<ffffffff81286dff>] submit_bh_wbc+0x12f/0x160
        [<ffffffff81286e62>] submit_bh+0x12/0x20
        [<ffffffff813395bd>] jbd2_write_superblock+0x8d/0x170
        [<ffffffff8133974d>] jbd2_mark_journal_empty+0x5d/0x90
        [<ffffffff813399cb>] jbd2_journal_destroy+0x24b/0x270
        [<ffffffff810bc4ca>] ? put_pwq_unlocked+0x2a/0x30
        [<ffffffff810bc6f5>] ? destroy_workqueue+0x225/0x250
        [<ffffffff81303494>] ext4_put_super+0x64/0x360
        [<ffffffff8124ab1a>] generic_shutdown_super+0x6a/0xf0
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Keith Busch <keith.busch@intel.com>
      Cc: Ross Zwisler <ross.zwisler@linux.intel.com>
      Suggested-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Tested-by: default avatarRoss Zwisler <ross.zwisler@linux.intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  6. 15 Oct, 2015 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block: don't release bdi while request_queue has live references · b02176f3
      Tejun Heo authored
      bdi's are initialized in two steps, bdi_init() and bdi_register(), but
      destroyed in a single step by bdi_destroy() which, for a bdi embedded
      in a request_queue, is called during blk_cleanup_queue() which makes
      the queue invisible and starts the draining of remaining usages.
      A request_queue's user can access the congestion state of the embedded
      bdi as long as it holds a reference to the queue.  As such, it may
      access the congested state of a queue which finished
      blk_cleanup_queue() but hasn't reached blk_release_queue() yet.
      Because the congested state was embedded in backing_dev_info which in
      turn is embedded in request_queue, accessing the congested state after
      bdi_destroy() was called was fine.  The bdi was destroyed but the
      memory region for the congested state remained accessible till the
      queue got released.
       ("writeback: don't embed root bdi_writeback_congested in
      bdi_writeback") changed the situation.  Now, the root congested state
      which is expected to be pinned while request_queue remains accessible
      is separately reference counted and the base ref is put during
      bdi_destroy().  This means that the root congested state may go away
      prematurely while the queue is between bdi_dstroy() and
      blk_cleanup_queue(), which was detected by Andrey's KASAN tests.
      The root cause of this problem is that bdi doesn't distinguish the two
      steps of destruction, unregistration and release, and now the root
      congested state actually requires a separate release step.  To fix the
      issue, this patch separates out bdi_unregister() and bdi_exit() from
      bdi_destroy().  bdi_unregister() is called from blk_cleanup_queue()
      and bdi_exit() from blk_release_queue().  bdi_destroy() is now just a
      simple wrapper calling the two steps back-to-back.
      While at it, the prototype of bdi_destroy() is moved right below
      bdi_setup_and_register() so that the counterpart operations are
      located together.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Fixes: a13f35e8
       ("writeback: don't embed root bdi_writeback_congested in bdi_writeback")
      Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org # v4.2+
      Reported-and-tested-by: default avatarAndrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/g/CAAeHK+zUJ74Zn17=rOyxacHU18SgCfC6bsYW=6kCY5GXJBwGfQ@mail.gmail.com
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJan Kara <jack@suse.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJeff Moyer <jmoyer@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  7. 13 Aug, 2015 1 commit
    • Kent Overstreet's avatar
      block: make generic_make_request handle arbitrarily sized bios · 54efd50b
      Kent Overstreet authored
      The way the block layer is currently written, it goes to great lengths
      to avoid having to split bios; upper layer code (such as bio_add_page())
      checks what the underlying device can handle and tries to always create
      bios that don't need to be split.
      But this approach becomes unwieldy and eventually breaks down with
      stacked devices and devices with dynamic limits, and it adds a lot of
      complexity. If the block layer could split bios as needed, we could
      eliminate a lot of complexity elsewhere - particularly in stacked
      drivers. Code that creates bios can then create whatever size bios are
      convenient, and more importantly stacked drivers don't have to deal with
      both their own bio size limitations and the limitations of the
      (potentially multiple) devices underneath them.  In the future this will
      let us delete merge_bvec_fn and a bunch of other code.
      We do this by adding calls to blk_queue_split() to the various
      make_request functions that need it - a few can already handle arbitrary
      size bios. Note that we add the call _after_ any call to
      blk_queue_bounce(); this means that blk_queue_split() and
      blk_recalc_rq_segments() don't need to be concerned with bouncing
      affecting segment merging.
      Some make_request_fn() callbacks were simple enough to audit and verify
      they don't need blk_queue_split() calls. The skipped ones are:
       * nfhd_make_request (arch/m68k/emu/nfblock.c)
       * axon_ram_make_request (arch/powerpc/sysdev/axonram.c)
       * simdisk_make_request (arch/xtensa/platforms/iss/simdisk.c)
       * brd_make_request (ramdisk - drivers/block/brd.c)
       * mtip_submit_request (drivers/block/mtip32xx/mtip32xx.c)
       * loop_make_request
       * null_queue_bio
       * bcache's make_request fns
      Some others are almost certainly safe to remove now, but will be left
      for future patches.
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@canonical.com>
      Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de>
      Cc: Alasdair Kergon <agk@redhat.com>
      Cc: Mike Snitzer <snitzer@redhat.com>
      Cc: dm-devel@redhat.com
      Cc: Lars Ellenberg <drbd-dev@lists.linbit.com>
      Cc: drbd-user@lists.linbit.com
      Cc: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
      Cc: Geoff Levand <geoff@infradead.org>
      Cc: Jim Paris <jim@jtan.com>
      Cc: Philip Kelleher <pjk1939@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org>
      Cc: Oleg Drokin <oleg.drokin@intel.com>
      Cc: Andreas Dilger <andreas.dilger@intel.com>
      Acked-by: NeilBrown <neilb@suse.de> (for the 'md/md.c' bits)
      Acked-by: default avatarMike Snitzer <snitzer@redhat.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarMartin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKent Overstreet <kent.overstreet@gmail.com>
      [dpark: skip more mq-based drivers, resolve merge conflicts, etc.]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDongsu Park <dpark@posteo.net>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMing Lin <ming.l@ssi.samsung.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  8. 17 Jul, 2015 1 commit
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      block: make /sys/block/<dev>/queue/discard_max_bytes writeable · 0034af03
      Jens Axboe authored
      Lots of devices support huge discard sizes these days. Depending
      on how the device handles them internally, huge discards can
      introduce massive latencies (hundreds of msec) on the device side.
      We have a sysfs file, discard_max_bytes, that advertises the max
      hardware supported discard size. Make this writeable, and split
      the settings into a soft and hard limit. This can be set from
      'discard_granularity' and up to the hardware limit.
      Add a new sysfs file, 'discard_max_hw_bytes', that shows the hw
      set limit.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJeff Moyer <jmoyer@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  9. 02 Jun, 2015 2 commits
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      writeback: separate out include/linux/backing-dev-defs.h · 66114cad
      Tejun Heo authored
      With the planned cgroup writeback support, backing-dev related
      declarations will be more widely used across block and cgroup;
      unfortunately, including backing-dev.h from include/linux/blkdev.h
      makes cyclic include dependency quite likely.
      This patch separates out backing-dev-defs.h which only has the
      essential definitions and updates blkdev.h to include it.  c files
      which need access to more backing-dev details now include
      backing-dev.h directly.  This takes backing-dev.h off the common
      include dependency chain making it a lot easier to use it across block
      and cgroup.
      v2: fs/fat build failure fixed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      blkcg: move block/blk-cgroup.h to include/linux/blk-cgroup.h · eea8f41c
      Tejun Heo authored
      cgroup aware writeback support will require exposing some of blkcg
      details.  In preprataion, move block/blk-cgroup.h to
      include/linux/blk-cgroup.h.  This patch is pure file move.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  10. 27 Apr, 2015 1 commit
    • NeilBrown's avatar
      block: destroy bdi before blockdev is unregistered. · 6cd18e71
      NeilBrown authored
      Because of the peculiar way that md devices are created (automatically
      when the device node is opened), a new device can be created and
      registered immediately after the
      	blk_unregister_region(disk_devt(disk), disk->minors);
      call in del_gendisk().
      Therefore it is important that all visible artifacts of the previous
      device are removed before this call.  In particular, the 'bdi'.
      commit c4db59d3
      Author: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
          fs: don't reassign dirty inodes to default_backing_dev_info
      moved the
      call from bdi_unregister() to bdi_destroy() it has been quite easy to
      lose a race and have a new (e.g.) "md127" be created after the
      blk_unregister_region() call and before bdi_destroy() is ultimately
      called by the final 'put_disk', which must come after del_gendisk().
      The new device finds that the bdi name is already registered in sysfs
      and complains
      > [ 9627.630029] WARNING: CPU: 18 PID: 3330 at fs/sysfs/dir.c:31 sysfs_warn_dup+0x5a/0x70()
      > [ 9627.630032] sysfs: cannot create duplicate filename '/devices/virtual/bdi/9:127'
      We can fix this by moving the bdi_destroy() call out of
      blk_release_queue() (which can happen very late when a refcount
      reaches zero) and into blk_cleanup_queue() - which happens exactly when the md
      device driver calls it.
      Then it is only necessary for md to call blk_cleanup_queue() before
      del_gendisk().  As loop.c devices are also created on demand by
      opening the device node, we make the same change there.
      Fixes: c4db59d3
      Reported-by: default avatarAzat Khuzhin <a3at.mail@gmail.com>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org (v4.0)
      Signed-off-by: default avatarNeilBrown <neilb@suse.de>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  11. 29 Jan, 2015 1 commit
  12. 09 Dec, 2014 1 commit
    • Bart Van Assche's avatar
      blk-mq: Fix a use-after-free · 45a9c9d9
      Bart Van Assche authored
      blk-mq users are allowed to free the memory request_queue.tag_set
      points at after blk_cleanup_queue() has finished but before
      blk_release_queue() has started. This can happen e.g. in the SCSI
      core. The SCSI core namely embeds the tag_set structure in a SCSI
      host structure. The SCSI host structure is freed by
      scsi_host_dev_release(). This function is called after
      blk_cleanup_queue() finished but can be called before
      This means that it is not safe to access request_queue.tag_set from
      inside blk_release_queue(). Hence remove the blk_sync_queue() call
      from blk_release_queue(). This call is not necessary - outstanding
      requests must have finished before blk_release_queue() is
      called. Additionally, move the blk_mq_free_queue() call from
      blk_release_queue() to blk_cleanup_queue() to avoid that struct
      request_queue.tag_set gets accessed after it has been freed.
      This patch avoids that the following kernel oops can be triggered
      when deleting a SCSI host for which scsi-mq was enabled:
      Call Trace:
       [<ffffffff8109a7c4>] lock_acquire+0xc4/0x270
       [<ffffffff814ce111>] mutex_lock_nested+0x61/0x380
       [<ffffffff812575f0>] blk_mq_free_queue+0x30/0x180
       [<ffffffff8124d654>] blk_release_queue+0x84/0xd0
       [<ffffffff8126c29b>] kobject_cleanup+0x7b/0x1a0
       [<ffffffff8126c140>] kobject_put+0x30/0x70
       [<ffffffff81245895>] blk_put_queue+0x15/0x20
       [<ffffffff8125c409>] disk_release+0x99/0xd0
       [<ffffffff8133d056>] device_release+0x36/0xb0
       [<ffffffff8126c29b>] kobject_cleanup+0x7b/0x1a0
       [<ffffffff8126c140>] kobject_put+0x30/0x70
       [<ffffffff8125a78a>] put_disk+0x1a/0x20
       [<ffffffff811d4cb5>] __blkdev_put+0x135/0x1b0
       [<ffffffff811d56a0>] blkdev_put+0x50/0x160
       [<ffffffff81199eb4>] kill_block_super+0x44/0x70
       [<ffffffff8119a2a4>] deactivate_locked_super+0x44/0x60
       [<ffffffff8119a87e>] deactivate_super+0x4e/0x70
       [<ffffffff811b9833>] cleanup_mnt+0x43/0x90
       [<ffffffff811b98d2>] __cleanup_mnt+0x12/0x20
       [<ffffffff8107252c>] task_work_run+0xac/0xe0
       [<ffffffff81002c01>] do_notify_resume+0x61/0xa0
       [<ffffffff814d2c58>] int_signal+0x12/0x17
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Cc: Robert Elliott <elliott@hp.com>
      Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@canonical.com>
      Cc: Alexander Gordeev <agordeev@redhat.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> # v3.13+
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  13. 25 Sep, 2014 3 commits
  14. 24 Sep, 2014 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      blk-mq, percpu_ref: start q->mq_usage_counter in atomic mode · 17497acb
      Tejun Heo authored
      blk-mq uses percpu_ref for its usage counter which tracks the number
      of in-flight commands and used to synchronously drain the queue on
      freeze.  percpu_ref shutdown takes measureable wallclock time as it
      involves a sched RCU grace period.  This means that draining a blk-mq
      takes measureable wallclock time.  One would think that this shouldn't
      matter as queue shutdown should be a rare event which takes place
      asynchronously w.r.t. userland.
      Unfortunately, SCSI probing involves synchronously setting up and then
      tearing down a lot of request_queues back-to-back for non-existent
      LUNs.  This means that SCSI probing may take above ten seconds when
      scsi-mq is used.
        [    0.949892] scsi host0: Virtio SCSI HBA
        [    1.007864] scsi 0:0:0:0: Direct-Access     QEMU     QEMU HARDDISK    1.1. PQ: 0 ANSI: 5
        [    1.021299] scsi 0:0:1:0: Direct-Access     QEMU     QEMU HARDDISK    1.1. PQ: 0 ANSI: 5
        [    1.520356] tsc: Refined TSC clocksource calibration: 2491.910 MHz
        [   16.186549] sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 0
        [   16.190478] sd 0:0:1:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
        [   16.194099] osd: LOADED open-osd 0.2.1
        [   16.203202] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 31457280 512-byte logical blocks: (16.1 GB/15.0 GiB)
        [   16.208478] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
        [   16.211439] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
        [   16.218771] sd 0:0:1:0: [sdb] 31457280 512-byte logical blocks: (16.1 GB/15.0 GiB)
        [   16.223264] sd 0:0:1:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
        [   16.225682] sd 0:0:1:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
      This is also the reason why request_queues start in bypass mode which
      is ended on blk_register_queue() as shutting down a fully functional
      queue also involves a RCU grace period and the queues for non-existent
      SCSI devices never reach registration.
      blk-mq basically needs to do the same thing - start the mq in a
      degraded mode which is faster to shut down and then make it fully
      functional only after the queue reaches registration.  percpu_ref
      recently grew facilities to force atomic operation until explicitly
      switched to percpu mode, which can be used for this purpose.  This
      patch makes blk-mq initialize q->mq_usage_counter in atomic mode and
      switch it to percpu mode only once blk_register_queue() is reached.
      Note that this issue was previously worked around by 0a30288d
      ("blk-mq, percpu_ref: implement a kludge for SCSI blk-mq stall during
      probe") for v3.17.  The temp fix was reverted in preparation of adding
      persistent atomic mode to percpu_ref by 9eca8046
       ("Revert "blk-mq,
      percpu_ref: implement a kludge for SCSI blk-mq stall during probe"").
      This patch and the prerequisite percpu_ref changes will be merged
      during v3.18 devel cycle.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Reported-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/g/20140919113815.GA10791@lst.de
      Fixes: add703fd
       ("blk-mq: use percpu_ref for mq usage count")
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKent Overstreet <kmo@daterainc.com>
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
  15. 09 Sep, 2014 1 commit
    • Alan Stern's avatar
      Block: fix unbalanced bypass-disable in blk_register_queue · df35c7c9
      Alan Stern authored
      When a queue is registered, the block layer turns off the bypass
      setting (because bypass is enabled when the queue is created).  This
      doesn't work well for queues that are unregistered and then registered
      again; we get a WARNING because of the unbalanced calls to
      This patch fixes the problem by making blk_register_queue() call
      blk_queue_bypass_end() only the first time the queue is registered.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
      Acked-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      CC: James Bottomley <James.Bottomley@HansenPartnership.com>
      CC: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  16. 01 Jul, 2014 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block, blk-mq: draining can't be skipped even if bypass_depth was non-zero · 776687bc
      Tejun Heo authored
      Currently, both blk_queue_bypass_start() and blk_mq_freeze_queue()
      skip queue draining if bypass_depth was already above zero.  The
      assumption is that the one which bumped the bypass_depth should have
      performed draining already; however, there's nothing which prevents a
      new instance of bypassing/freezing from starting before the previous
      one finishes draining.  The current code may allow the later
      bypassing/freezing instances to complete while there still are
      in-flight requests which haven't finished draining.
      Fix it by draining regardless of bypass_depth.  We still skip draining
      from blk_queue_bypass_start() while the queue is initializing to avoid
      introducing excessive delays during boot.  INIT_DONE setting is moved
      above the initial blk_queue_bypass_end() so that bypassing attempts
      can't slip inbetween.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Nicholas A. Bellinger <nab@linux-iscsi.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  17. 27 May, 2014 1 commit
  18. 20 May, 2014 1 commit
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      blk-mq: allow changing of queue depth through sysfs · e3a2b3f9
      Jens Axboe authored
      For request_fn based devices, the block layer exports a 'nr_requests'
      file through sysfs to allow adjusting of queue depth on the fly.
      Currently this returns -EINVAL for blk-mq, since it's not wired up.
      Wire this up for blk-mq, so that it now also always dynamic
      adjustments of the allowed queue depth for any given block device
      managed by blk-mq.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  19. 10 Feb, 2014 1 commit
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      blk-mq: rework flush sequencing logic · 18741986
      Christoph Hellwig authored
      Witch to using a preallocated flush_rq for blk-mq similar to what's done
      with the old request path.  This allows us to set up the request properly
      with a tag from the actually allowed range and ->rq_disk as needed by
      some drivers.  To make life easier we also switch to dynamic allocation
      of ->flush_rq for the old path.
      This effectively reverts most of
          "blk-mq: fix for flush deadlock"
          "blk-mq: Don't reserve a tag for flush request"
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  20. 31 Dec, 2013 1 commit
  21. 15 Nov, 2013 1 commit
  22. 25 Oct, 2013 1 commit
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      blk-mq: new multi-queue block IO queueing mechanism · 320ae51f
      Jens Axboe authored
      Linux currently has two models for block devices:
      - The classic request_fn based approach, where drivers use struct
        request units for IO. The block layer provides various helper
        functionalities to let drivers share code, things like tag
        management, timeout handling, queueing, etc.
      - The "stacked" approach, where a driver squeezes in between the
        block layer and IO submitter. Since this bypasses the IO stack,
        driver generally have to manage everything themselves.
      With drivers being written for new high IOPS devices, the classic
      request_fn based driver doesn't work well enough. The design dates
      back to when both SMP and high IOPS was rare. It has problems with
      scaling to bigger machines, and runs into scaling issues even on
      smaller machines when you have IOPS in the hundreds of thousands
      per device.
      The stacked approach is then most often selected as the model
      for the driver. But this means that everybody has to re-invent
      everything, and along with that we get all the problems again
      that the shared approach solved.
      This commit introduces blk-mq, block multi queue support. The
      design is centered around per-cpu queues for queueing IO, which
      then funnel down into x number of hardware submission queues.
      We might have a 1:1 mapping between the two, or it might be
      an N:M mapping. That all depends on what the hardware supports.
      blk-mq provides various helper functions, which include:
      - Scalable support for request tagging. Most devices need to
        be able to uniquely identify a request both in the driver and
        to the hardware. The tagging uses per-cpu caches for freed
        tags, to enable cache hot reuse.
      - Timeout handling without tracking request on a per-device
        basis. Basically the driver should be able to get a notification,
        if a request happens to fail.
      - Optional support for non 1:1 mappings between issue and
        submission queues. blk-mq can redirect IO completions to the
        desired location.
      - Support for per-request payloads. Drivers almost always need
        to associate a request structure with some driver private
        command structure. Drivers can tell blk-mq this at init time,
        and then any request handed to the driver will have the
        required size of memory associated with it.
      - Support for merging of IO, and plugging. The stacked model
        gets neither of these. Even for high IOPS devices, merging
        sequential IO reduces per-command overhead and thus
        increases bandwidth.
      For now, this is provided as a potential 3rd queueing model, with
      the hope being that, as it matures, it can replace both the classic
      and stacked model. That would get us back to having just 1 real
      model for block devices, leaving the stacked approach to dm/md
      devices (as it was originally intended).
      Contributions in this patch from the following people:
      Shaohua Li <shli@fusionio.com>
      Alexander Gordeev <agordeev@redhat.com>
      Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
      Mike Christie <michaelc@cs.wisc.edu>
      Matias Bjorling <m@bjorling.me>
      Jeff Moyer <jmoyer@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  23. 11 Sep, 2013 1 commit
  24. 03 Apr, 2013 1 commit
    • Arnd Bergmann's avatar
      block: avoid using uninitialized value in from queue_var_store · c678ef52
      Arnd Bergmann authored
      As found by gcc-4.8, the QUEUE_SYSFS_BIT_FNS macro creates functions
      that use a value generated by queue_var_store independent of whether
      that value was set or not.
      block/blk-sysfs.c: In function 'queue_store_nonrot':
      block/blk-sysfs.c:244:385: warning: 'val' may be used uninitialized in this function [-Wmaybe-uninitialized]
      Unlike most other such warnings, this one is not a false positive,
      writing any non-number string into the sysfs files indeed has
      an undefined result, rather than returning an error.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarArnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  25. 09 Jan, 2013 1 commit
  26. 06 Dec, 2012 1 commit
    • Bart Van Assche's avatar
      block: Rename queue dead flag · 3f3299d5
      Bart Van Assche authored
      QUEUE_FLAG_DEAD is used to indicate that queuing new requests must
      stop. After this flag has been set queue draining starts. However,
      during the queue draining phase it is still safe to invoke the
      queue's request_fn, so QUEUE_FLAG_DYING is a better name for this
      This patch has been generated by running the following command
      over the kernel source tree:
      git grep -lEw 'blk_queue_dead|QUEUE_FLAG_DEAD' |
          xargs sed -i.tmp -e 's/blk_queue_dead/blk_queue_dying/g'      \
              -e 's/QUEUE_FLAG_DEAD/QUEUE_FLAG_DYING/g';                \
      sed -i.tmp -e "s/QUEUE_FLAG_DYING$(printf \\t)*5/QUEUE_FLAG_DYING$(printf \\t)5/g" \
          include/linux/blkdev.h;                                       \
      sed -i.tmp -e 's/ DEAD/ DYING/g' -e 's/dead queue/a dying queue/' \
          -e 's/Dead queue/A dying queue/' block/blk-core.c
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: James Bottomley <JBottomley@Parallels.com>
      Cc: Mike Christie <michaelc@cs.wisc.edu>
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Chanho Min <chanho.min@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  27. 21 Sep, 2012 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block: lift the initial queue bypass mode on blk_register_queue() instead of... · 749fefe6
      Tejun Heo authored
      block: lift the initial queue bypass mode on blk_register_queue() instead of blk_init_allocated_queue()
       ("blkcg: make request_queue bypassing on allocation") made
      request_queues bypassed on allocation to avoid switching on and off
      bypass mode on a queue being initialized.  Some drivers allocate and
      then destroy a lot of queues without fully initializing them and
      incurring bypass latency overhead on each of them could add upto
      significant overhead.
      Unfortunately, blk_init_allocated_queue() is never used by queues of
      bio-based drivers, which means that all bio-based driver queues are in
      bypass mode even after initialization and registration complete
      Due to the limited way request_queues are used by bio drivers, this
      problem is hidden pretty well but it shows up when blk-throttle is
      used in combination with a bio-based driver.  Trying to configure
      (echoing to cgroupfs file) blk-throttle for a bio-based driver hangs
      indefinitely in blkg_conf_prep() waiting for bypass mode to end.
      This patch moves the initial blk_queue_bypass_end() call from
      blk_init_allocated_queue() to blk_register_queue() which is called for
      any userland-visible queues regardless of its type.
      I believe this is correct because I don't think there is any block
      driver which needs or wants working elevator and blk-cgroup on a queue
      which isn't visible to userland.  If there are such users, we need a
      different solution.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Reported-by: default avatarJoseph Glanville <joseph.glanville@orionvm.com.au>
      Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
      Acked-by: default avatarVivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  28. 20 Sep, 2012 1 commit
    • Martin K. Petersen's avatar
      block: Implement support for WRITE SAME · 4363ac7c
      Martin K. Petersen authored
      The WRITE SAME command supported on some SCSI devices allows the same
      block to be efficiently replicated throughout a block range. Only a
      single logical block is transferred from the host and the storage device
      writes the same data to all blocks described by the I/O.
      This patch implements support for WRITE SAME in the block layer. The
      blkdev_issue_write_same() function can be used by filesystems and block
      drivers to replicate a buffer across a block range. This can be used to
      efficiently initialize software RAID devices, etc.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMartin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMike Snitzer <snitzer@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  29. 09 Sep, 2012 1 commit
    • Dave Reisner's avatar
      block: reject invalid queue attribute values · b1f3b64d
      Dave Reisner authored
      Instead of using simple_strtoul which "converts" invalid numbers to 0,
      use strict_strtoul and perform error checking to ensure that userspace
      passes us a valid unsigned long. This addresses problems with functions
      such as writev, which might want to write a trailing newline -- the
      newline should rightfully be rejected, but the value preceeding it
      should be preserved.
      Fixes BZ#46981.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDave Reisner <dreisner@archlinux.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  30. 26 Jun, 2012 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      blkcg: implement per-blkg request allocation · a051661c
      Tejun Heo authored
      Currently, request_queue has one request_list to allocate requests
      from regardless of blkcg of the IO being issued.  When the unified
      request pool is used up, cfq proportional IO limits become meaningless
      - whoever grabs the next request being freed wins the race regardless
      of the configured weights.
      This can be easily demonstrated by creating a blkio cgroup w/ very low
      weight, put a program which can issue a lot of random direct IOs there
      and running a sequential IO from a different cgroup.  As soon as the
      request pool is used up, the sequential IO bandwidth crashes.
      This patch implements per-blkg request_list.  Each blkg has its own
      request_list and any IO allocates its request from the matching blkg
      making blkcgs completely isolated in terms of request allocation.
      * Root blkcg uses the request_list embedded in each request_queue,
        which was renamed to @q->root_rl from @q->rq.  While making blkcg rl
        handling a bit harier, this enables avoiding most overhead for root
      * Queue fullness is properly per request_list but bdi isn't blkcg
        aware yet, so congestion state currently just follows the root
        blkcg.  As writeback isn't aware of blkcg yet, this works okay for
        async congestion but readahead may get the wrong signals.  It's
        better than blkcg completely collapsing with shared request_list but
        needs to be improved with future changes.
      * After this change, each block cgroup gets a full request pool making
        resource consumption of each cgroup higher.  This makes allowing
        non-root users to create cgroups less desirable; however, note that
        allowing non-root users to directly manage cgroups is already
        severely broken regardless of this patch - each block cgroup
        consumes kernel memory and skews IO weight (IO weights are not
      v2: queue-sysfs.txt updated and patch description udpated as suggested
          by Vivek.
      v3: blk_get_rl() wasn't checking error return from
          blkg_lookup_create() and may cause oops on lookup failure.  Fix it
          by falling back to root_rl on blkg lookup failures.  This problem
          was spotted by Rakesh Iyer <rni@google.com>.
      v4: Updated to accomodate 458f27a9
       "block: Avoid missed wakeup in
          request waitqueue".  blk_drain_queue() now wakes up waiters on all
          blkg->rl on the target queue.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarVivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  31. 25 Jun, 2012 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block: prepare for multiple request_lists · 5b788ce3
      Tejun Heo authored
      Request allocation is about to be made per-blkg meaning that there'll
      be multiple request lists.
      * Make queue full state per request_list.  blk_*queue_full() functions
        are renamed to blk_*rl_full() and takes @rl instead of @q.
      * Rename blk_init_free_list() to blk_init_rl() and make it take @rl
        instead of @q.  Also add @gfp_mask parameter.
      * Add blk_exit_rl() instead of destroying rl directly from
      * Add request_list->q and make request alloc/free functions -
        blk_free_request(), [__]freed_request(), __get_request() - take @rl
        instead of @q.
      This patch doesn't introduce any functional difference.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarVivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  32. 06 Mar, 2012 2 commits
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      blkcg: unify blkg's for blkcg policies · e8989fae
      Tejun Heo authored
      Currently, blkg is per cgroup-queue-policy combination.  This is
      unnatural and leads to various convolutions in partially used
      duplicate fields in blkg, config / stat access, and general management
      of blkgs.
      This patch make blkg's per cgroup-queue and let them serve all
      policies.  blkgs are now created and destroyed by blkcg core proper.
      This will allow further consolidation of common management logic into
      blkcg core and API with better defined semantics and layering.
      As a transitional step to untangle blkg management, elvswitch and
      policy [de]registration, all blkgs except the root blkg are being shot
      down during elvswitch and bypass.  This patch adds blkg_root_update()
      to update root blkg in place on policy change.  This is hacky and racy
      but should be good enough as interim step until we get locking
      simplified and switch over to proper in-place update for all blkgs.
      -v2: Root blkgs need to be updated on elvswitch too and blkg_alloc()
           comment wasn't updated according to the function change.  Fixed.
           Both pointed out by Vivek.
      -v3: v2 updated blkg_destroy_all() to invoke update_root_blkg_pd() for
           all policies.  This freed root pd during elvswitch before the
           last queue finished exiting and led to oops.  Directly invoke
           update_root_blkg_pd() only on BLKIO_POLICY_PROP from
           cfq_exit_queue().  This also is closer to what will be done with
           proper in-place blkg update.  Reported by Vivek.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      blkcg: add blkcg_{init|drain|exit}_queue() · 5efd6113
      Tejun Heo authored
      Currently block core calls directly into blk-throttle for init, drain
      and exit.  This patch adds blkcg_{init|drain|exit}_queue() which wraps
      the blk-throttle functions.  This is to give more control and
      visiblity to blkcg core layer for proper layering.  Further patches
      will add logic common to blkcg policies to the functions.
      While at it, collapse blk_throtl_release() into blk_throtl_exit().
      There's no reason to keep them separate.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  33. 13 Dec, 2011 3 commits
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block, cfq: move io_cq exit/release to blk-ioc.c · 7e5a8794
      Tejun Heo authored
      With kmem_cache managed by blk-ioc, io_cq exit/release can be moved to
      blk-ioc too.  The odd ->io_cq->exit/release() callbacks are replaced
      with elevator_ops->elevator_exit_icq_fn() with unlinking from both ioc
      and q, and freeing automatically handled by blk-ioc.  The elevator
      operation only need to perform exit operation specific to the elevator
      - in cfq's case, exiting the cfqq's.
      Also, clearing of io_cq's on q detach is moved to block core and
      automatically performed on elevator switch and q release.
      Because the q io_cq points to might be freed before RCU callback for
      the io_cq runs, blk-ioc code should remember to which cache the io_cq
      needs to be freed when the io_cq is released.  New field
      io_cq->__rcu_icq_cache is added for this purpose.  As both the new
      field and rcu_head are used only after io_cq is released and the
      q/ioc_node fields aren't, they are put into unions.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block, cfq: move cfqd->cic_index to q->id · a73f730d
      Tejun Heo authored
      cfq allocates per-queue id using ida and uses it to index cic radix
      tree from io_context.  Move it to q->id and allocate on queue init and
      free on queue release.  This simplifies cfq a bit and will allow for
      further improvements of io context life-cycle management.
      This patch doesn't introduce any functional difference.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block: add blk_queue_dead() · 34f6055c
      Tejun Heo authored
      There are a number of QUEUE_FLAG_DEAD tests.  Add blk_queue_dead()
      macro and use it.
      This patch doesn't introduce any functional difference.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  34. 19 Oct, 2011 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      block: fix request_queue lifetime handling by making blk_queue_cleanup() properly shutdown · c9a929dd
      Tejun Heo authored
      request_queue is refcounted but actually depdends on lifetime
      management from the queue owner - on blk_cleanup_queue(), block layer
      expects that there's no request passing through request_queue and no
      new one will.
      This is fundamentally broken.  The queue owner (e.g. SCSI layer)
      doesn't have a way to know whether there are other active users before
      calling blk_cleanup_queue() and other users (e.g. bsg) don't have any
      guarantee that the queue is and would stay valid while it's holding a
      With delay added in blk_queue_bio() before queue_lock is grabbed, the
      following oops can be easily triggered when a device is removed with
      in-flight IOs.
       sd 0:0:1:0: [sdb] Stopping disk
       ata1.01: disabled
       general protection fault: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP
       CPU 2
       Modules linked in:
       Pid: 648, comm: test_rawio Not tainted 3.1.0-rc3-work+ #56 Bochs Bochs
       RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8137d651>]  [<ffffffff8137d651>] elv_rqhash_find+0x61/0x100
       Process test_rawio (pid: 648, threadinfo ffff880019efa000, task ffff880019ef8a80)
       Call Trace:
        [<ffffffff8137d774>] elv_merge+0x84/0xe0
        [<ffffffff81385b54>] blk_queue_bio+0xf4/0x400
        [<ffffffff813838ea>] generic_make_request+0xca/0x100
        [<ffffffff81383994>] submit_bio+0x74/0x100
        [<ffffffff811c53ec>] dio_bio_submit+0xbc/0xc0
        [<ffffffff811c610e>] __blockdev_direct_IO+0x92e/0xb40
        [<ffffffff811c39f7>] blkdev_direct_IO+0x57/0x60
        [<ffffffff8113b1c5>] generic_file_aio_read+0x6d5/0x760
        [<ffffffff8118c1ca>] do_sync_read+0xda/0x120
        [<ffffffff8118ce55>] vfs_read+0xc5/0x180
        [<ffffffff8118cfaa>] sys_pread64+0x9a/0xb0
        [<ffffffff81afaf6b>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b
      This happens because blk_queue_cleanup() destroys the queue and
      elevator whether IOs are in progress or not and DEAD tests are
      sprinkled in the request processing path without proper
      Similar problem exists for blk-throtl.  On queue cleanup, blk-throtl
      is shutdown whether it has requests in it or not.  Depending on
      timing, it either oopses or throttled bios are lost putting tasks
      which are waiting for bio completion into eternal D state.
      The way it should work is having the usual clear distinction between
      shutdown and release.  Shutdown drains all currently pending requests,
      marks the queue dead, and performs partial teardown of the now
      unnecessary part of the queue.  Even after shutdown is complete,
      reference holders are still allowed to issue requests to the queue
      although they will be immmediately failed.  The rest of teardown
      happens on release.
      This patch makes the following changes to make blk_queue_cleanup()
      behave as proper shutdown.
      * QUEUE_FLAG_DEAD is now set while holding both q->exit_mutex and
      * Unsynchronized DEAD check in generic_make_request_checks() removed.
        This couldn't make any meaningful difference as the queue could die
        after the check.
      * blk_drain_queue() updated such that it can drain all requests and is
        now called during cleanup.
      * blk_throtl updated such that it checks DEAD on grabbing queue_lock,
        drains all throttled bios during cleanup and free td when queue is
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>