1. 22 Jan, 2014 1 commit
• reciprocal_divide: update/correction of the algorithm · 809fa972
Hannes Frederic Sowa authored
```Jakub Zawadzki noticed that some divisions by reciprocal_divide()
were not correct [1][2], which he could also show with BPF code
after divisions are transformed into reciprocal_value() for runtime
invariance which can be passed to reciprocal_divide() later on;
reverse in BPF dump ended up with a different, off-by-one K in
some situations.

This has been fixed by Eric Dumazet in commit aee636c4
("bpf: do not use reciprocal divide"). This follow-up patch
improves reciprocal_value() and reciprocal_divide() to work in
all cases by using Granlund and Montgomery method, so that also
future use is safe and without any non-obvious side-effects.
Known problems with the old implementation were that division by 1
always returned 0 and some off-by-ones when the dividend and divisor
where very large. This seemed to not be problematic with its
current users, as far as we can tell. Eric Dumazet checked for
the slab usage, we cannot surely say so in the case of flex_array.
Still, in order to fix that, we propose an extension from the
original implementation from commit 6a2d7a95 resp. [3][4],
by using the algorithm proposed in "Division by Invariant Integers
Using Multiplication" [5], Torbjörn Granlund and Peter L.
Montgomery, that is, pseudocode for q = n/d where q, n, d is in
u32 universe:

1) Initialization:

int l = ceil(log_2 d)
uword m' = floor((1<<32)*((1<<l)-d)/d)+1
int sh_1 = min(l,1)
int sh_2 = max(l-1,0)

2) For q = n/d, all uword:

uword t = (n*m')>>32
q = (t+((n-t)>>sh_1))>>sh_2

The assembler implementation from Agner Fog [6] also helped a lot
while implementing. We have tested the implementation on x86_64,
ppc64, i686, s390x; on x86_64/haswell we're still half the latency
compared to normal divide.

Joint work with Daniel Borkmann.

[1] http://www.wireshark.org/~darkjames/reciprocal-buggy.c
[2] http://www.wireshark.org/~darkjames/set-and-dump-filter-k-bug.c
[3] https://gmplib.org/~tege/division-paper.pdf
[4] http://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/bcd/divide.html
[5] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.1.2556
Cc: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com>
Cc: Austin S Hemmelgarn <ahferroin7@gmail.com>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Cc: Jesse Gross <jesse@nicira.com>
Cc: Stephen Hemminger <stephen@networkplumber.org>
Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andy Gospodarek <andy@greyhouse.net>
Cc: Veaceslav Falico <vfalico@redhat.com>
Cc: Jay Vosburgh <fubar@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>```
2. 07 Mar, 2012 1 commit
• lib: reduce the use of module.h wherever possible · 8bc3bcc9
Paul Gortmaker authored
```For files only using THIS_MODULE and/or EXPORT_SYMBOL, map
them onto including export.h -- or if the file isn't even
using those, then just delete the include.  Fix up any implicit
include dependencies that were being masked by module.h along
the way.
Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>```
3. 27 May, 2011 1 commit
• flex_array: avoid divisions when accessing elements · 704f15dd
Jesse Gross authored
```On most architectures division is an expensive operation and accessing an
element currently requires four of them.  This performance penalty
effectively precludes flex arrays from being used on any kind of fast
path.  However, two of these divisions can be handled at creation time and
the others can be replaced by a reciprocal divide, completely avoiding
real divisions on access.

[eparis@redhat.com: rebase on top of changes to support 0 len elements]
[eparis@redhat.com: initialize part_nr when array fits entirely in base]
Signed-off-by: Jesse Gross <jesse@nicira.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
4. 28 Apr, 2011 5 commits
• flex_arrays: allow zero length flex arrays · bf69d41d
Eric Paris authored
```Just like kmalloc will allow one to allocate a 0 length segment of memory
flex arrays should do the same thing.  It should bomb if you try to use
something, but it should at least allow the allocation.

This is needed because when SELinux switched to using flex_arrays in 2.6.38
the inability to allocate a 0 length array resulted in SELinux policy load
returning -ENOSPC when previously it worked.
Based-on-patch-by: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Chris Richards <gizmo@giz-works.com>
Cc: stable@kernel.org [2.6.38+]```
• flex_array: flex_array_prealloc takes a number of elements, not an end · 5d30b10b
Eric Paris authored
```Change flex_array_prealloc to take the number of elements for which space
should be allocated instead of the last (inclusive) element. Users
and documentation are updated accordingly.  flex_arrays got introduced before
they had users.  When folks started using it, they ended up needing a
different API than was coded up originally.  This swaps over to the API that
folks apparently need.
Based-on-patch-by: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Chris Richards <gizmo@giz-works.com>
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: stable@kernel.org [2.6.38+]```
• flex_array: allow 0 length elements · a8d05c81
Eric Paris authored
```flex_arrays are supposed to be a replacement for:
kmalloc(num_elements * sizeof(element))

If kmalloc is given 0 num_elements or a 0 size element it will happily return
ZERO_SIZE_PTR.  Which looks like a valid allocation, but which will explode if
something actually try to use it.  The current flex_array code will return an
equivalent result if num_elements is 0, but will fail to work if
sizeof(element) is 0.  This patch allows allocation to work even for 0 size
elements.  It will cause flex_arrays to explode though if they are used.
Imitating the kmalloc behavior.
Based-on-patch-by: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>```
• flex_arrays: allow zero length flex arrays · 150cdf6e
Eric Paris authored
```Just like kmalloc will allow one to allocate a 0 length segment of memory
flex arrays should do the same thing.  It should bomb if you try to use
something, but it should at least allow the allocation.

This is needed because when SELinux switched to using flex_arrays in 2.6.38
the inability to allocate a 0 length array resulted in SELinux policy load
returning -ENOSPC when previously it worked.
Based-on-patch-by: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Chris Richards <gizmo@giz-works.com>
Cc: stable@kernel.org [2.6.38+]```
• flex_array: flex_array_prealloc takes a number of elements, not an end · 5a3ea878
Eric Paris authored
```Change flex_array_prealloc to take the number of elements for which space
should be allocated instead of the last (inclusive) element. Users
and documentation are updated accordingly.  flex_arrays got introduced before
they had users.  When folks started using it, they ended up needing a
different API than was coded up originally.  This swaps over to the API that
folks apparently need.
Based-on-patch-by: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Chris Richards <gizmo@giz-works.com>
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: stable@kernel.org [2.6.38+]```
5. 13 Jan, 2011 1 commit
• flex_array: export symbols to modules · 78c377d1
David Rientjes authored
```Alex said:

I want to use flex_array to store a sparse array of ATM cell
re-assembly buffers for my ATM over Ethernet driver.  Using the per-vcc
user_back structure causes problems when stacked with things like
br2684.

Add EXPORT_SYMBOL() for all publically accessible flex array functions
and move to obj-y so that modules may use this library.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org>
Reported-by: Alex Bennee <kernel-hacker@bennee.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
6. 10 Aug, 2010 1 commit
• flex_array: add helpers to get and put to make pointers easy to use · ea98eed9
Eric Paris authored
```Getting and putting arrays of pointers with flex arrays is a PITA.  You
have to remember to pass &ptr to the _put and you have to do weird and
wacky casting to get the ptr back from the _get.  Add two functions
flex_array_get_ptr() and flex_array_put_ptr() to handle all of the magic.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: simplification suggested by Joe]
Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
7. 24 Apr, 2010 1 commit
• flex_array: fix the panic when calling flex_array_alloc() without __GFP_ZERO · e59464c7
Changli Gao authored
```memset() is called with the wrong address and the kernel panics.
Signed-off-by: Changli Gao <xiaosuo@gmail.com>
Cc: Patrick McHardy <kaber@trash.net>
Cc: <stable@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
8. 22 Sep, 2009 5 commits
• flex_array: add missing kerneldoc annotations · fc0d8d94
David Rientjes authored
```Add kerneldoc annotations for function formals of type struct flex_array
and gfp_t which are currently lacking.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: introduce DEFINE_FLEX_ARRAY · 45b588d6
David Rientjes authored
```FLEX_ARRAY_INIT(element_size, total_nr_elements) cannot determine if
either parameter is valid, so flex arrays which are statically allocated
with this interface can easily become corrupted or reference beyond its
allocated memory.

This removes FLEX_ARRAY_INIT() as a struct flex_array initializer since no
initializer may perform the required checking.  Instead, the array is now
defined with a new interface:

DEFINE_FLEX_ARRAY(name, element_size, total_nr_elements)

This may be prefixed with `static' for file scope.

This interface includes compile-time checking of the parameters to ensure
they are valid.  Since the validity of both element_size and
total_nr_elements depend on FLEX_ARRAY_BASE_SIZE and FLEX_ARRAY_PART_SIZE,
the kernel build will fail if either of these predefined values changes
such that the array parameters are no longer valid.

Since BUILD_BUG_ON() requires compile time constants, several of the
static inline functions that were once local to lib/flex_array.c had to be
moved to include/linux/flex_array.h.
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: add flex_array_shrink function · 4af5a2f7
David Rientjes authored
```Add a new function to the flex_array API:

int flex_array_shrink(struct flex_array *fa)

This function will free all unused second-level pages.  Since elements are
now poisoned if they are not allocated with __GFP_ZERO, it's possible to
identify parts that consist solely of unused elements.

flex_array_shrink() returns the number of pages freed.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: poison free elements · 19da3dd1
David Rientjes authored
```Newly initialized flex_array's and/or flex_array_part's are now poisoned
with a new poison value, FLEX_ARRAY_FREE.  It's value is similar to
POISON_FREE used in the various slab allocators, but is different to
distinguish between flex array's poisoned kmem and slab allocator poisoned
kmem.

This will allow us to identify flex_array_part's that only contain free
elements (and free them with an addition to the flex_array API).  This
could also be extended in the future to identify `get' uses on elements
that have not been `put'.

If __GFP_ZERO is passed for a part's gfp mask, the poisoning is avoided.
These elements are considered to be in-use since they have been
initialized.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: add flex_array_clear function · e6de3988
David Rientjes authored
```Add a new function to the flex_array API:

int flex_array_clear(struct flex_array *fa,
unsigned int element_nr)

This function will zero the element at element_nr in the flex_array.

Although this is equivalent to using flex_array_put() and passing a
pointer to zero'd memory, flex_array_clear() does not require such a
pointer to memory that would most likely need to be allocated on the
caller's stack which could be significantly large depending on
element_size.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
9. 27 Aug, 2009 3 commits
• flex_array: convert element_nr formals to unsigned · b62e408c
David Rientjes authored
```It's problematic to allow signed element_nr's or total's to be passed as
part of the flex array API.

flex_array_alloc() allows total_nr_elements to be set to a negative
quantity, which is obviously erroneous.

flex_array_get() and flex_array_put() allows negative array indices in
dereferencing an array part, which could address memory mapped before
struct flex_array.

The fix is to convert all existing element_nr formals to be qualified as
unsigned.  Existing checks to compare it to total_nr_elements or the max
array size based on element_size need not be changed.
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: fix flex_array_free_parts comment · 105b6e8a
David Rientjes authored
```flex_array_free_parts() does not take `src' or `element_nr' formals, so
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
• flex_array: fix get function for elements in base starting at non-zero · a30b595d
David Rientjes authored
```If all array elements fit into the base structure and data is copied using
flex_array_put() starting at a non-zero index, flex_array_get() will fail
to return the data.

This fixes the bug by only checking for NULL parts when all elements do
not fit in the base structure when flex_array_get() is used.  Otherwise,
fa_element_to_part_nr() will always be 0 since there are no parts
structures needed and such element may never have been put.  Thus, it will
remain NULL due to the kzalloc() of the base.

Additionally, flex_array_put() now only checks for a NULL part when all
elements do not fit in the base structure.  This is otherwise unnecessary
since the base structure is guaranteed to exist (or we would have already
hit a NULL pointer).
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
10. 04 Aug, 2009 1 commit
• flex_array: remove unneeded index calculation · 07868201
Jonathan Corbet authored
```flex_array_get() calculates an index value, then drops it on the floor;
simply remove it.
Signed-off-by: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```
11. 30 Jul, 2009 1 commit
• lib: flexible array implementation · 534acc05
Dave Hansen authored
```Once a structure goes over PAGE_SIZE*2, we see occasional allocation
failures.  Some people have chosen to switch over to things like vmalloc()
that will let them keep array-like access to such a large structures.
But, vmalloc() has plenty of downsides.

Here's an alternative.  I think it's what Andrew was suggesting here:

http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/7/2/518

I call it a flexible array.  It does all of its work in PAGE_SIZE bits, so
never does an order>0 allocation.  The base level has
PAGE_SIZE-2*sizeof(int) bytes of storage for pointers to the second level.
So, with a 32-bit arch, you get about 4MB (4183112 bytes) of total
storage when the objects pack nicely into a page.  It is half that on
64-bit because the pointers are twice the size.  There's a table detailing
this in the code.

There are kerneldocs for the functions, but here's an
overview:

flex_array_alloc() - dynamically allocate a base structure
flex_array_free() - free the array and all of the
second-level pages
flex_array_free_parts() - free the second-level pages, but
not the base (for static bases)
flex_array_put() - copy into the array at the given index
flex_array_get() - copy out of the array at the given index
flex_array_prealloc() - preallocate the second-level pages
between the given indexes to
guarantee no allocs will occur at
put() time.

We could also potentially just pass the "element_size" into each of the
API functions instead of storing it internally.  That would get us one
more base pointer on 32-bit.

I've been testing this by running it in userspace.  The header and patch
that I've been using are here, as well as the little script I'm using to
generate the size table which goes in the kerneldocs.

http://sr71.net/~dave/linux/flexarray/

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>```