1. 02 Mar, 2017 6 commits
  2. 15 Dec, 2016 4 commits
    • Petr Mladek's avatar
      kdb: call vkdb_printf() from vprintk_default() only when wanted · 34aaff40
      Petr Mladek authored
      kdb_trap_printk allows to pass normal printk() messages to kdb via
      vkdb_printk().  For example, it is used to get backtrace using the
      classic show_stack(), see kdb_show_stack().
      vkdb_printf() tries to avoid a potential infinite loop by disabling the
      trap.  But this approach is racy, for example:
      CPU1					CPU2
        // assume that kdb_trap_printk == 0
        saved_trap_printk = kdb_trap_printk;
        kdb_trap_printk = 0;
      Problem1: Now, a nested printk() on CPU0 calls vkdb_printf()
      	  even when it should have been disabled. It will not
      	  cause a deadlock but...
         // using the outdated saved value: 0
         kdb_trap_printk = saved_trap_printk;
      Problem2: Now, kdb_trap_printk == -1 and will stay like this.
         It means that all messages will get passed to kdb from
         now on.
      This patch removes the racy saved_trap_printk handling.  Instead, the
      recursion is prevented by a check for the locked CPU.
      The solution is still kind of racy.  A non-related printk(), from
      another process, might get trapped by vkdb_printf().  And the wanted
      printk() might not get trapped because kdb_printf_cpu is assigned.  But
      this problem existed even with the original code.
      A proper solution would be to get_cpu() before setting kdb_trap_printk
      and trap messages only from this CPU.  I am not sure if it is worth the
      effort, though.
      In fact, the race is very theoretical.  When kdb is running any of the
      commands that use kdb_trap_printk there is a single active CPU and the
      other CPUs should be in a holding pen inside kgdb_cpu_enter().
      The only time this is violated is when there is a timeout waiting for
      the other CPUs to report to the holding pen.
      Finally, note that the situation is a bit schizophrenic.  vkdb_printf()
      explicitly allows recursion but only from KDB code that calls
      kdb_printf() directly.  On the other hand, the generic printk()
      recursion is not allowed because it might cause an infinite loop.  This
      is why we could not hide the decision inside vkdb_printf() easily.
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1480412276-16690-4-git-send-email-pmladek@suse.comSigned-off-by: default avatarPetr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
      Cc: Daniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Petr Mladek's avatar
      kdb: properly synchronize vkdb_printf() calls with other CPUs · d5d8d3d0
      Petr Mladek authored
      kdb_printf_lock does not prevent other CPUs from entering the critical
      section because it is ignored when KDB_STATE_PRINTF_LOCK is set.
      The problematic situation might look like:
      CPU0					CPU1
        if (!KDB_STATE(PRINTF_LOCK))
          spin_lock_irqsave(&kdb_printf_lock, flags);
      					  if (!KDB_STATE(PRINTF_LOCK))
      BANG: The PRINTF_LOCK state is set and CPU1 is entering the critical
      section without spinning on the lock.
      The problem is that the code tries to implement locking using two state
      variables that are not handled atomically.  Well, we need a custom
      locking because we want to allow reentering the critical section on the
      very same CPU.
      Let's use solution from Petr Zijlstra that was proposed for a similar
      scenario, see
      This patch uses the same trick with cmpxchg().  The only difference is
      that we want to handle only recursion from the same context and
      therefore we disable interrupts.
      In addition, KDB_STATE_PRINTF_LOCK is removed.  In fact, we are not able
      to set it a non-racy way.
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1480412276-16690-3-git-send-email-pmladek@suse.comSigned-off-by: default avatarPetr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Petr Mladek's avatar
      kdb: remove unused kdb_event handling · d1bd8ead
      Petr Mladek authored
      kdb_event state variable is only set but never checked in the kernel
      http://www.spinics.net/lists/kdb/msg01733.html suggests that this
      variable affected WARN_CONSOLE_UNLOCKED() in the original
      implementation.  But this check never went upstream.
      The semantic is unclear and racy.  The value is updated after the
      kdb_printf_lock is acquired and after it is released.  It should be
      symmetric at minimum.  The value should be manipulated either inside or
      outside the locked area.
      Fortunately, it seems that the original function is gone and we could
      simply remove the state variable.
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1480412276-16690-2-git-send-email-pmladek@suse.comSigned-off-by: default avatarPetr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
      Suggested-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Douglas Anderson's avatar
      kernel/debug/debug_core.c: more properly delay for secondary CPUs · 2d13bb64
      Douglas Anderson authored
      We've got a delay loop waiting for secondary CPUs.  That loop uses
      loops_per_jiffy.  However, loops_per_jiffy doesn't actually mean how
      many tight loops make up a jiffy on all architectures.  It is quite
      common to see things like this in the boot log:
        Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer
        frequency.. 48.00 BogoMIPS (lpj=24000)
      In my case I was seeing lots of cases where other CPUs timed out
      entering the debugger only to print their stack crawls shortly after the
      kdb> prompt was written.
      Elsewhere in kgdb we already use udelay(), so that should be safe enough
      to use to implement our timeout.  We'll delay 1 ms for 1000 times, which
      should give us a full second of delay (just like the old code wanted)
      but allow us to notice that we're done every 1 ms.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: simplifications, per Daniel]
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1477091361-2039-1-git-send-email-dianders@chromium.orgSigned-off-by: default avatarDouglas Anderson <dianders@chromium.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
      Cc: Brian Norris <briannorris@chromium.org>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[4.0+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  3. 13 Dec, 2016 1 commit
  4. 22 Feb, 2016 1 commit
    • Kees Cook's avatar
      mm/init: Add 'rodata=off' boot cmdline parameter to disable read-only kernel mappings · d2aa1aca
      Kees Cook authored
      It may be useful to debug writes to the readonly sections of memory,
      so provide a cmdline "rodata=off" to allow for this. This can be
      expanded in the future to support "log" and "write" modes, but that
      will need to be architecture-specific.
      This also makes KDB software breakpoints more usable, as read-only
      mappings can now be disabled on any kernel.
      Suggested-by: default avatarH. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
      Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com>
      Cc: David Brown <david.brown@linaro.org>
      Cc: Denys Vlasenko <dvlasenk@redhat.com>
      Cc: Emese Revfy <re.emese@gmail.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com>
      Cc: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
      Cc: PaX Team <pageexec@freemail.hu>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com
      Cc: linux-arch <linux-arch@vger.kernel.org>
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1455748879-21872-3-git-send-email-keescook@chromium.orgSigned-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
  5. 04 Dec, 2015 1 commit
  6. 19 Feb, 2015 8 commits
    • Colin Cross's avatar
      debug: prevent entering debug mode on panic/exception. · 5516fd7b
      Colin Cross authored
      On non-developer devices, kgdb prevents the device from rebooting
      after a panic.
      Incase of panics and exceptions, to allow the device to reboot, prevent
      entering debug mode to avoid getting stuck waiting for the user to
      interact with debugger.
      To avoid entering the debugger on panic/exception without any extra
      configuration, panic_timeout is being used which can be set via
      /proc/sys/kernel/panic at run time and CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT sets the
      default value.
      Setting panic_timeout indicates that the user requested machine to
      perform unattended reboot after panic. We dont want to get stuck waiting
      for the user input incase of panic.
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: kgdb-bugreport@lists.sourceforge.net
      Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
      Cc: Android Kernel Team <kernel-team@android.com>
      Cc: John Stultz <john.stultz@linaro.org>
      Cc: Sumit Semwal <sumit.semwal@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarColin Cross <ccross@android.com>
      [Kiran: Added context to commit message.
      panic_timeout is used instead of break_on_panic and
      break_on_exception to honor CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT
      Modified the commit as per community feedback]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKiran Raparthy <kiran.kumar@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Daniel Thompson's avatar
      kdb: Const qualifier for kdb_getstr's prompt argument · 32d375f6
      Daniel Thompson authored
      All current callers of kdb_getstr() can pass constant pointers via the
      prompt argument. This patch adds a const qualification to make explicit
      the fact that this is safe.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Daniel Thompson's avatar
      kdb: Provide forward search at more prompt · fb6daa75
      Daniel Thompson authored
      Currently kdb allows the output of comamnds to be filtered using the
      | grep feature. This is useful but does not permit the output emitted
      shortly after a string match to be examined without wading through the
      entire unfiltered output of the command. Such a feature is particularly
      useful to navigate function traces because these traces often have a
      useful trigger string *before* the point of interest.
      This patch reuses the existing filtering logic to introduce a simple
      forward search to kdb that can be triggered from the more prompt.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Daniel Thompson's avatar
      kdb: Fix a prompt management bug when using | grep · ab08e464
      Daniel Thompson authored
      Currently when the "| grep" feature is used to filter the output of a
      command then the prompt is not displayed for the subsequent command.
      Likewise any characters typed by the user are also not echoed to the
      display. This rather disconcerting problem eventually corrects itself
      when the user presses Enter and the kdb_grepping_flag is cleared as
      kdb_parse() tries to make sense of whatever they typed.
      This patch resolves the problem by moving the clearing of this flag
      from the middle of command processing to the beginning.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Daniel Thompson's avatar
      kdb: Remove stack dump when entering kgdb due to NMI · 54543881
      Daniel Thompson authored
      Issuing a stack dump feels ergonomically wrong when entering due to NMI.
      Entering due to NMI is normally a reaction to a user request, either the
      NMI button on a server or a "magic knock" on a UART. Therefore the
      backtrace behaviour on entry due to NMI should be like SysRq-g (no stack
      dump) rather than like oops.
      Note also that the stack dump does not offer any information that
      cannot be trivial retrieved using the 'bt' command.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Daniel Thompson's avatar
      kdb: Avoid printing KERN_ levels to consoles · f7d4ca8b
      Daniel Thompson authored
      Currently when kdb traps printk messages then the raw log level prefix
      (consisting of '\001' followed by a numeral) does not get stripped off
      before the message is issued to the various I/O handlers supported by
      kdb. This causes annoying visual noise as well as causing problems
      grepping for ^. It is also a change of behaviour compared to normal usage
      of printk() usage. For example <SysRq>-h ends up with different output to
      that of kdb's "sr h".
      This patch addresses the problem by stripping log levels from messages
      before they are issued to the I/O handlers. printk() which can also
      act as an i/o handler in some cases is special cased; if the caller
      provided a log level then the prefix will be preserved when sent to
      The addition of non-printable characters to the output of kdb commands is a
      regression, albeit and extremely elderly one, introduced by commit
      04d2c8c8 ("printk: convert the format for KERN_<LEVEL> to a 2 byte
      pattern"). Note also that this patch does *not* restore the original
      behaviour from v3.5. Instead it makes printk() from within a kdb command
      display the message without any prefix (i.e. like printk() normally does).
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
      Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Jason Wessel's avatar
      kdb: Fix off by one error in kdb_cpu() · df0036d1
      Jason Wessel authored
      There was a follow on replacement patch against the prior
      "kgdb: Timeout if secondary CPUs ignore the roundup".
      See: https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/1/7/442
      This patch is the delta vs the patch that was committed upstream:
        * Fix an off-by-one error in kdb_cpu().
        * Replace NR_CPUS with CONFIG_NR_CPUS to tell checkpatch that we
          really want a static limit.
        * Removed the "KGDB: " prefix from the pr_crit() in debug_core.c
          (kgdb-next contains a patch which introduced pr_fmt() to this file
          to the tag will now be applied automatically).
      Cc: Daniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
    • Jay Lan's avatar
      kdb: fix incorrect counts in KDB summary command output · 14675592
      Jay Lan authored
      The output of KDB 'summary' command should report MemTotal, MemFree
      and Buffers output in kB. Current codes report in unit of pages.
      A define of K(x) as
      is defined in the code, but not used.
      This patch would apply the define to convert the values to kB.
      Please include me on Cc on replies. I do not subscribe to linux-kernel.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJay Lan <jlan@sgi.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
  7. 22 Jan, 2015 1 commit
  8. 11 Nov, 2014 10 commits
  9. 14 Oct, 2014 1 commit
  10. 12 Jun, 2014 1 commit
  11. 04 Jun, 2014 1 commit
  12. 18 Apr, 2014 1 commit
  13. 07 Apr, 2014 1 commit
    • Davidlohr Bueso's avatar
      mm: per-thread vma caching · 615d6e87
      Davidlohr Bueso authored
      This patch is a continuation of efforts trying to optimize find_vma(),
      avoiding potentially expensive rbtree walks to locate a vma upon faults.
      The original approach (https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/11/1/410), where the
      largest vma was also cached, ended up being too specific and random,
      thus further comparison with other approaches were needed.  There are
      two things to consider when dealing with this, the cache hit rate and
      the latency of find_vma().  Improving the hit-rate does not necessarily
      translate in finding the vma any faster, as the overhead of any fancy
      caching schemes can be too high to consider.
      We currently cache the last used vma for the whole address space, which
      provides a nice optimization, reducing the total cycles in find_vma() by
      up to 250%, for workloads with good locality.  On the other hand, this
      simple scheme is pretty much useless for workloads with poor locality.
      Analyzing ebizzy runs shows that, no matter how many threads are
      running, the mmap_cache hit rate is less than 2%, and in many situations
      below 1%.
      The proposed approach is to replace this scheme with a small per-thread
      cache, maximizing hit rates at a very low maintenance cost.
      Invalidations are performed by simply bumping up a 32-bit sequence
      number.  The only expensive operation is in the rare case of a seq
      number overflow, where all caches that share the same address space are
      flushed.  Upon a miss, the proposed replacement policy is based on the
      page number that contains the virtual address in question.  Concretely,
      the following results are seen on an 80 core, 8 socket x86-64 box:
      1) System bootup: Most programs are single threaded, so the per-thread
         scheme does improve ~50% hit rate by just adding a few more slots to
         the cache.
      | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) |
      | baseline       | 50.61%   | 19.90            |
      | patched        | 73.45%   | 13.58            |
      2) Kernel build: This one is already pretty good with the current
         approach as we're dealing with good locality.
      | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) |
      | baseline       | 75.28%   | 11.03            |
      | patched        | 88.09%   | 9.31             |
      3) Oracle 11g Data Mining (4k pages): Similar to the kernel build workload.
      | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) |
      | baseline       | 70.66%   | 17.14            |
      | patched        | 91.15%   | 12.57            |
      4) Ebizzy: There's a fair amount of variation from run to run, but this
         approach always shows nearly perfect hit rates, while baseline is just
         about non-existent.  The amounts of cycles can fluctuate between
         anywhere from ~60 to ~116 for the baseline scheme, but this approach
         reduces it considerably.  For instance, with 80 threads:
      | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) |
      | baseline       | 1.06%    | 91.54            |
      | patched        | 99.97%   | 14.18            |
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix nommu build, per Davidlohr]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: document vmacache_valid() logic]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: attempt to untangle header files]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: add vmacache_find() BUG_ON]
      [hughd@google.com: add vmacache_valid_mm() (from Oleg)]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: adjust and enhance comments]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarRik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarMichel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
      Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarHugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  14. 26 Feb, 2014 1 commit
  15. 25 Jan, 2014 1 commit
  16. 03 Oct, 2013 1 commit