1. 04 Apr, 2016 1 commit
  2. 25 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Alexander Potapenko's avatar
      mm, kasan: SLAB support · 7ed2f9e6
      Alexander Potapenko authored
      Add KASAN hooks to SLAB allocator.
      This patch is based on the "mm: kasan: unified support for SLUB and SLAB
      allocators" patch originally prepared by Dmitry Chernenkov.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  3. 23 Mar, 2016 2 commits
  4. 22 Mar, 2016 8 commits
    • Dmitry Vyukov's avatar
      kernel: add kcov code coverage · 5c9a8750
      Dmitry Vyukov authored
      kcov provides code coverage collection for coverage-guided fuzzing
      (randomized testing).  Coverage-guided fuzzing is a testing technique
      that uses coverage feedback to determine new interesting inputs to a
      system.  A notable user-space example is AFL
      (http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/afl/).  However, this technique is not
      widely used for kernel testing due to missing compiler and kernel
      kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible.  It aims to
      collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
      To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard
      interrupts and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic or
      non-interesting parts of kernel is disbled (e.g.  scheduler, locking).
      Currently there is a single coverage collection mode (tracing), but the
      API anticipates additional collection modes.  Initially I also
      implemented a second mode which exposes coverage in a fixed-size hash
      table of counters (what Quentin used in his original patch).  I've
      dropped the second mode for simplicity.
      This patch adds the necessary support on kernel side.  The complimentary
      compiler support was added in gcc revision 231296.
      We've used this support to build syzkaller system call fuzzer, which has
      found 90 kernel bugs in just 2 months:
      We've also found 30+ bugs in our internal systems with syzkaller.
      Another (yet unexplored) direction where kcov coverage would greatly
      help is more traditional "blob mutation".  For example, mounting a
      random blob as a filesystem, or receiving a random blob over wire.
      Why not gcov.  Typical fuzzing loop looks as follows: (1) reset
      coverage, (2) execute a bit of code, (3) collect coverage, repeat.  A
      typical coverage can be just a dozen of basic blocks (e.g.  an invalid
      input).  In such context gcov becomes prohibitively expensive as
      reset/collect coverage steps depend on total number of basic
      blocks/edges in program (in case of kernel it is about 2M).  Cost of
      kcov depends only on number of executed basic blocks/edges.  On top of
      that, kernel requires per-thread coverage because there are always
      background threads and unrelated processes that also produce coverage.
      With inlined gcov instrumentation per-thread coverage is not possible.
      kcov exposes kernel PCs and control flow to user-space which is
      insecure.  But debugfs should not be mapped as user accessible.
      Based on a patch by Quentin Casasnovas.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make task_struct.kcov_mode have type `enum kcov_mode']
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: unbreak allmodconfig]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: follow x86 Makefile layout standards]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      Cc: syzkaller <syzkaller@googlegroups.com>
      Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
      Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
      Cc: Tavis Ormandy <taviso@google.com>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Quentin Casasnovas <quentin.casasnovas@oracle.com>
      Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com>
      Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com>
      Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
      Cc: David Drysdale <drysdale@google.com>
      Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
      Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Alexandre Bounine's avatar
      rapidio: add mport char device driver · e8de3701
      Alexandre Bounine authored
      Add mport character device driver to provide user space interface to
      basic RapidIO subsystem operations.
      See included Documentation/rapidio/mport_cdev.txt for more details.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix printk warning on i386]
      [dan.carpenter@oracle.com: mport_cdev: fix some error codes]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexandre Bounine <alexandre.bounine@idt.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDan Carpenter <dan.carpenter@oracle.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarBarry Wood <barry.wood@idt.com>
      Cc: Matt Porter <mporter@kernel.crashing.org>
      Cc: Aurelien Jacquiot <a-jacquiot@ti.com>
      Cc: Andre van Herk <andre.van.herk@prodrive-technologies.com>
      Cc: Barry Wood <barry.wood@idt.com>
      Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Alexandre Bounine's avatar
      rapidio/tsi721: add filtered debug output · 72d8a0d2
      Alexandre Bounine authored
      Replace "all-or-nothing" debug output with controlled debug output using
      functional block masks.  This allows run time control of debug messages
      through 'dbg_level' module parameter.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexandre Bounine <alexandre.bounine@idt.com>
      Cc: Matt Porter <mporter@kernel.crashing.org>
      Cc: Aurelien Jacquiot <a-jacquiot@ti.com>
      Cc: Andre van Herk <andre.van.herk@prodrive-technologies.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Maciej S. Szmigiero's avatar
      fat: add config option to set UTF-8 mount option by default · 38739380
      Maciej S. Szmigiero authored
      FAT has long supported its own default file name encoding config
      setting, separate from CONFIG_NLS_DEFAULT.
      However, if UTF-8 encoded file names are desired FAT character set
      should not be set to utf8 since this would make file names case
      sensitive even if case insensitive matching is requested.  Instead,
      "utf8" mount options should be provided to enable UTF-8 file names in
      FAT file system.
      Unfortunately, there was no possibility to set the default value of this
      option so on UTF-8 system "utf8" mount option had to be added manually
      to most FAT mounts.
      This patch adds config option to set such default value.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMaciej S. Szmigiero <mail@maciej.szmigiero.name>
      Acked-by: default avatarOGAWA Hirofumi <hirofumi@mail.parknet.co.jp>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Gang He's avatar
      ocfs2: add feature document for online file check · d750c42a
      Gang He authored
      This document will describe OCFS2 online file check feature.  OCFS2 is
      often used in high-availaibility systems.  However, OCFS2 usually
      converts the filesystem to read-only when encounters an error.  This may
      not be necessary, since turning the filesystem read-only would affect
      other running processes as well, decreasing availability.
      Then, a mount option (errors=continue) is introduced, which would return
      the -EIO errno to the calling process and terminate furhter processing
      so that the filesystem is not corrupted further.  The filesystem is not
      converted to read-only, and the problematic file's inode number is
      reported in the kernel log.  The user can try to check/fix this file via
      online filecheck feature.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGang He <ghe@suse.com>
      Cc: Mark Fasheh <mfasheh@suse.de>
      Cc: Joel Becker <jlbec@evilplan.org>
      Cc: Junxiao Bi <junxiao.bi@oracle.com>
      Cc: Joseph Qi <joseph.qi@huawei.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Shilpasri G Bhat's avatar
      cpufreq: powernv: Add sysfs attributes to show throttle stats · 1b028984
      Shilpasri G Bhat authored
      Create sysfs attributes to export throttle information in
      /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpuX/cpufreq/throttle_stats directory. The
      newly added sysfs files are as follows:
      Detailed explanation of each attribute is added to
      Signed-off-by: default avatarShilpasri G Bhat <shilpa.bhat@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarViresh Kumar <viresh.kumar@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@intel.com>
    • Benjamin Poirier's avatar
    • Benjamin Poirier's avatar
      net: Fix indentation of the conf/ documentation block · 6b226e2f
      Benjamin Poirier authored
      Commit d67ef35f ("clarify documentation for
      net.ipv4.igmp_max_memberships") mistakenly indented a block of
      documentation such that it now looks like it belongs to a specific sysctl.
      Restore that block's original position.
      Cc: Jeremy Eder <jeder@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBenjamin Poirier <bpoirier@suse.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
  5. 21 Mar, 2016 4 commits
  6. 18 Mar, 2016 3 commits
  7. 17 Mar, 2016 10 commits
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      fix Christoph's email addresses · 93e205a7
      Christoph Lameter authored
      There are various email addresses for me throughout the kernel.  Use the
      one that will always be valid.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • John Stultz's avatar
      proc: add /proc/<pid>/timerslack_ns interface · 5de23d43
      John Stultz authored
      This patch provides a proc/PID/timerslack_ns interface which exposes a
      task's timerslack value in nanoseconds and allows it to be changed.
      This allows power/performance management software to set timer slack for
      other threads according to its policy for the thread (such as when the
      thread is designated foreground vs.  background activity)
      If the value written is non-zero, slack is set to that value.  Otherwise
      sets it to the default for the thread.
      This interface checks that the calling task has permissions to to use
      PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS on the target task, so that we can ensure
      arbitrary apps do not change the timer slack for other apps.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohn Stultz <john.stultz@linaro.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      Cc: Arjan van de Ven <arjan@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Oren Laadan <orenl@cellrox.com>
      Cc: Ruchi Kandoi <kandoiruchi@google.com>
      Cc: Rom Lemarchand <romlem@android.com>
      Cc: Android Kernel Team <kernel-team@android.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Johannes Weiner's avatar
      mm: memcontrol: reclaim and OOM kill when shrinking memory.max below usage · b6e6edcf
      Johannes Weiner authored
      Setting the original memory.limit_in_bytes hardlimit is subject to a
      race condition when the desired value is below the current usage.  The
      code tries a few times to first reclaim and then see if the usage has
      dropped to where we would like it to be, but there is no locking, and
      the workload is free to continue making new charges up to the old limit.
      Thus, attempting to shrink a workload relies on pure luck and hope that
      the workload happens to cooperate.
      To fix this in the cgroup2 memory.max knob, do it the other way round:
      set the limit first, then try enforcement.  And if reclaim is not able
      to succeed, trigger OOM kills in the group.  Keep going until the new
      limit is met, we run out of OOM victims and there's only unreclaimable
      memory left, or the task writing to memory.max is killed.  This allows
      users to shrink groups reliably, and the behavior is consistent with
      what happens when new charges are attempted in excess of memory.max.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Cc: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov@virtuozzo.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Mel Gorman's avatar
      mm: thp: set THP defrag by default to madvise and add a stall-free defrag option · 444eb2a4
      Mel Gorman authored
      THP defrag is enabled by default to direct reclaim/compact but not wake
      kswapd in the event of a THP allocation failure.  The problem is that
      THP allocation requests potentially enter reclaim/compaction.  This
      potentially incurs a severe stall that is not guaranteed to be offset by
      reduced TLB misses.  While there has been considerable effort to reduce
      the impact of reclaim/compaction, it is still a high cost and workloads
      that should fit in memory fail to do so.  Specifically, a simple
      anon/file streaming workload will enter direct reclaim on NUMA at least
      even though the working set size is 80% of RAM.  It's been years and
      it's time to throw in the towel.
      First, this patch defines THP defrag as follows;
       madvise: A failed allocation will direct reclaim/compact if the application requests it
       never:   Neither reclaim/compact nor wake kswapd
       defer:   A failed allocation will wake kswapd/kcompactd
       always:  A failed allocation will direct reclaim/compact (historical behaviour)
                khugepaged defrag will enter direct/reclaim but not wake kswapd.
      Next it sets the default defrag option to be "madvise" to only enter
      direct reclaim/compaction for applications that specifically requested
      Lastly, it removes a check from the page allocator slowpath that is
      related to __GFP_THISNODE to allow "defer" to work.  The callers that
      really cares are slub/slab and they are updated accordingly.  The slab
      one may be surprising because it also corrects a comment as kswapd was
      never woken up by that path.
      This means that a THP fault will no longer stall for most applications
      by default and the ideal for most users that get THP if they are
      immediately available.  There are still options for users that prefer a
      stall at startup of a new application by either restoring historical
      behaviour with "always" or pick a half-way point with "defer" where
      kswapd does some of the work in the background and wakes kcompactd if
      necessary.  THP defrag for khugepaged remains enabled and will enter
      direct/reclaim but no wakeup kswapd or kcompactd.
      After this patch a THP allocation failure will quickly fallback and rely
      on khugepaged to recover the situation at some time in the future.  In
      some cases, this will reduce THP usage but the benefit of THP is hard to
      measure and not a universal win where as a stall to reclaim/compaction
      is definitely measurable and can be painful.
      The first test for this is using "usemem" to read a large file and write
      a large anonymous mapping (to avoid the zero page) multiple times.  The
      total size of the mappings is 80% of RAM and the benchmark simply
      measures how long it takes to complete.  It uses multiple threads to see
      if that is a factor.  On UMA, the performance is almost identical so is
      not reported but on NUMA, we see this
                                         4.4.0                 4.4.0
                                kcompactd-v1r1         nodefrag-v1r3
      Amean    System-1       102.86 (  0.00%)       46.81 ( 54.50%)
      Amean    System-4        37.85 (  0.00%)       34.02 ( 10.12%)
      Amean    System-7        48.12 (  0.00%)       46.89 (  2.56%)
      Amean    System-12       51.98 (  0.00%)       56.96 ( -9.57%)
      Amean    System-21       80.16 (  0.00%)       79.05 (  1.39%)
      Amean    System-30      110.71 (  0.00%)      107.17 (  3.20%)
      Amean    System-48      127.98 (  0.00%)      124.83 (  2.46%)
      Amean    Elapsd-1       185.84 (  0.00%)      105.51 ( 43.23%)
      Amean    Elapsd-4        26.19 (  0.00%)       25.58 (  2.33%)
      Amean    Elapsd-7        21.65 (  0.00%)       21.62 (  0.16%)
      Amean    Elapsd-12       18.58 (  0.00%)       17.94 (  3.43%)
      Amean    Elapsd-21       17.53 (  0.00%)       16.60 (  5.33%)
      Amean    Elapsd-30       17.45 (  0.00%)       17.13 (  1.84%)
      Amean    Elapsd-48       15.40 (  0.00%)       15.27 (  0.82%)
      For a single thread, the benchmark completes 43.23% faster with this
      patch applied with smaller benefits as the thread increases.  Similar,
      notice the large reduction in most cases in system CPU usage.  The
      overall CPU time is
                     4.4.0       4.4.0
              kcompactd-v1r1 nodefrag-v1r3
      User        10357.65    10438.33
      System       3988.88     3543.94
      Elapsed      2203.01     1634.41
      Which is substantial. Now, the reclaim figures
                                       4.4.0       4.4.0
      Minor Faults                 128458477   278352931
      Major Faults                   2174976         225
      Swap Ins                      16904701           0
      Swap Outs                     17359627           0
      Allocation stalls                43611           0
      DMA allocs                           0           0
      DMA32 allocs                  19832646    19448017
      Normal allocs                614488453   580941839
      Movable allocs                       0           0
      Direct pages scanned          24163800           0
      Kswapd pages scanned                 0           0
      Kswapd pages reclaimed               0           0
      Direct pages reclaimed        20691346           0
      Compaction stalls                42263           0
      Compaction success                 938           0
      Compaction failures              41325           0
      This patch eliminates almost all swapping and direct reclaim activity.
      There is still overhead but it's from NUMA balancing which does not
      identify that it's pointless trying to do anything with this workload.
      I also tried the thpscale benchmark which forces a corner case where
      compaction can be used heavily and measures the latency of whether base
      or huge pages were used
      thpscale Fault Latencies
                                             4.4.0                 4.4.0
                                    kcompactd-v1r1         nodefrag-v1r3
      Amean    fault-base-1      5288.84 (  0.00%)     2817.12 ( 46.73%)
      Amean    fault-base-3      6365.53 (  0.00%)     3499.11 ( 45.03%)
      Amean    fault-base-5      6526.19 (  0.00%)     4363.06 ( 33.15%)
      Amean    fault-base-7      7142.25 (  0.00%)     4858.08 ( 31.98%)
      Amean    fault-base-12    13827.64 (  0.00%)    10292.11 ( 25.57%)
      Amean    fault-base-18    18235.07 (  0.00%)    13788.84 ( 24.38%)
      Amean    fault-base-24    21597.80 (  0.00%)    24388.03 (-12.92%)
      Amean    fault-base-30    26754.15 (  0.00%)    19700.55 ( 26.36%)
      Amean    fault-base-32    26784.94 (  0.00%)    19513.57 ( 27.15%)
      Amean    fault-huge-1      4223.96 (  0.00%)     2178.57 ( 48.42%)
      Amean    fault-huge-3      2194.77 (  0.00%)     2149.74 (  2.05%)
      Amean    fault-huge-5      2569.60 (  0.00%)     2346.95 (  8.66%)
      Amean    fault-huge-7      3612.69 (  0.00%)     2997.70 ( 17.02%)
      Amean    fault-huge-12     3301.75 (  0.00%)     6727.02 (-103.74%)
      Amean    fault-huge-18     6696.47 (  0.00%)     6685.72 (  0.16%)
      Amean    fault-huge-24     8000.72 (  0.00%)     9311.43 (-16.38%)
      Amean    fault-huge-30    13305.55 (  0.00%)     9750.45 ( 26.72%)
      Amean    fault-huge-32     9981.71 (  0.00%)    10316.06 ( -3.35%)
      The average time to fault pages is substantially reduced in the majority
      of caseds but with the obvious caveat that fewer THPs are actually used
      in this adverse workload
                                         4.4.0                 4.4.0
                                kcompactd-v1r1         nodefrag-v1r3
      Percentage huge-1         0.71 (  0.00%)       14.04 (1865.22%)
      Percentage huge-3        10.77 (  0.00%)       33.05 (206.85%)
      Percentage huge-5        60.39 (  0.00%)       38.51 (-36.23%)
      Percentage huge-7        45.97 (  0.00%)       34.57 (-24.79%)
      Percentage huge-12       68.12 (  0.00%)       40.07 (-41.17%)
      Percentage huge-18       64.93 (  0.00%)       47.82 (-26.35%)
      Percentage huge-24       62.69 (  0.00%)       44.23 (-29.44%)
      Percentage huge-30       43.49 (  0.00%)       55.38 ( 27.34%)
      Percentage huge-32       50.72 (  0.00%)       51.90 (  2.35%)
                                       4.4.0       4.4.0
      Minor Faults                  37429143    47564000
      Major Faults                      1916        1558
      Swap Ins                          1466        1079
      Swap Outs                      2936863      149626
      Allocation stalls                62510           3
      DMA allocs                           0           0
      DMA32 allocs                   6566458     6401314
      Normal allocs                216361697   216538171
      Movable allocs                       0           0
      Direct pages scanned          25977580       17998
      Kswapd pages scanned                 0     3638931
      Kswapd pages reclaimed               0      207236
      Direct pages reclaimed         8833714          88
      Compaction stalls               103349           5
      Compaction success                 270           4
      Compaction failures             103079           1
      Note again that while this does swap as it's an aggressive workload, the
      direct relcim activity and allocation stalls is substantially reduced.
      There is some kswapd activity but ftrace showed that the kswapd activity
      was due to normal wakeups from 4K pages being allocated.
      Compaction-related stalls and activity are almost eliminated.
      I also tried the stutter benchmark.  For this, I do not have figures for
      NUMA but it's something that does impact UMA so I'll report what is
                                       4.4.0                 4.4.0
                              kcompactd-v1r1         nodefrag-v1r3
      Min         mmap      7.3571 (  0.00%)      7.3438 (  0.18%)
      1st-qrtle   mmap      7.5278 (  0.00%)     17.9200 (-138.05%)
      2nd-qrtle   mmap      7.6818 (  0.00%)     21.6055 (-181.25%)
      3rd-qrtle   mmap     11.0889 (  0.00%)     21.8881 (-97.39%)
      Max-90%     mmap     27.8978 (  0.00%)     22.1632 ( 20.56%)
      Max-93%     mmap     28.3202 (  0.00%)     22.3044 ( 21.24%)
      Max-95%     mmap     28.5600 (  0.00%)     22.4580 ( 21.37%)
      Max-99%     mmap     29.6032 (  0.00%)     25.5216 ( 13.79%)
      Max         mmap   4109.7289 (  0.00%)   4813.9832 (-17.14%)
      Mean        mmap     12.4474 (  0.00%)     19.3027 (-55.07%)
      This benchmark is trying to fault an anonymous mapping while there is a
      heavy IO load -- a scenario that desktop users used to complain about
      frequently.  This shows a mix because the ideal case of mapping with THP
      is not hit as often.  However, note that 99% of the mappings complete
      13.79% faster.  The CPU usage here is particularly interesting
                     4.4.0       4.4.0
      User           67.50        0.99
      System       1327.88       91.30
      Elapsed      2079.00     2128.98
      And once again we look at the reclaim figures
                                       4.4.0       4.4.0
      Minor Faults                 335241922  1314582827
      Major Faults                       715         819
      Swap Ins                             0           0
      Swap Outs                            0           0
      Allocation stalls               532723           0
      DMA allocs                           0           0
      DMA32 allocs                1822364341  1177950222
      Normal allocs               1815640808  1517844854
      Movable allocs                       0           0
      Direct pages scanned          21892772           0
      Kswapd pages scanned          20015890    41879484
      Kswapd pages reclaimed        19961986    41822072
      Direct pages reclaimed        21892741           0
      Compaction stalls              1065755           0
      Compaction success                 514           0
      Compaction failures            1065241           0
      Allocation stalls and all direct reclaim activity is eliminated as well
      as compaction-related stalls.
      THP gives impressive gains in some cases but only if they are quickly
      available.  We're not going to reach the point where they are completely
      free so lets take the costs out of the fast paths finally and defer the
      cost to kswapd, kcompactd and khugepaged where it belongs.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
      Acked-by: default avatarRik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarVlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Johannes Weiner's avatar
      mm: scale kswapd watermarks in proportion to memory · 795ae7a0
      Johannes Weiner authored
      In machines with 140G of memory and enterprise flash storage, we have
      seen read and write bursts routinely exceed the kswapd watermarks and
      cause thundering herds in direct reclaim.  Unfortunately, the only way
      to tune kswapd aggressiveness is through adjusting min_free_kbytes - the
      system's emergency reserves - which is entirely unrelated to the
      system's latency requirements.  In order to get kswapd to maintain a
      250M buffer of free memory, the emergency reserves need to be set to 1G.
      That is a lot of memory wasted for no good reason.
      On the other hand, it's reasonable to assume that allocation bursts and
      overall allocation concurrency scale with memory capacity, so it makes
      sense to make kswapd aggressiveness a function of that as well.
      Change the kswapd watermark scale factor from the currently fixed 25% of
      the tunable emergency reserve to a tunable 0.1% of memory.
      Beyond 1G of memory, this will produce bigger watermark steps than the
      current formula in default settings.  Ensure that the new formula never
      chooses steps smaller than that, i.e.  25% of the emergency reserve.
      On a 140G machine, this raises the default watermark steps - the
      distance between min and low, and low and high - from 16M to 143M.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarMel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Acked-by: default avatarRik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarDavid Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Kirill A. Shutemov's avatar
      thp, vmstats: count deferred split events · f9719a03
      Kirill A. Shutemov authored
      Count how many times we put a THP in split queue.  Currently, it happens
      on partial unmap of a THP.
      Rapidly growing value can indicate that an application behaves
      unfriendly wrt THP: often fault in huge page and then unmap part of it.
      This leads to unnecessary memory fragmentation and the application may
      require tuning.
      The event also can help with debugging kernel [mis-]behaviour.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Vladimir Davydov's avatar
      mm: memcontrol: report kernel stack usage in cgroup2 memory.stat · 12580e4b
      Vladimir Davydov authored
      Show how much memory is allocated to kernel stacks.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarVladimir Davydov <vdavydov@virtuozzo.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Vladimir Davydov's avatar
      mm: memcontrol: report slab usage in cgroup2 memory.stat · 27ee57c9
      Vladimir Davydov authored
      Show how much memory is used for storing reclaimable and unreclaimable
      in-kernel data structures allocated from slab caches.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarVladimir Davydov <vdavydov@virtuozzo.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Rich Felker's avatar
      sh: add device tree support and generic board using device tree · 7480e0aa
      Rich Felker authored
      Add a new pseudo-board, within the existing SH boards/machine-vectors
      framework, which does not represent any actual hardware but instead
      requires all hardware to be described by the device tree blob provided
      by the boot loader. Changes made are thus non-invasive and do not risk
      breaking support for legacy boards.
      New hardware, including the open-hardware J2 and associated SoC
      devices, will use device free from the outset. Legacy SH boards can
      transition to device tree once all their hardware has device tree
      bindings, driver support for device tree, and a dts file for the
      It is intented that, once all boards are supported in the new
      framework, the existing machine-vectors framework should be removed
      and the new device tree setup code integrated directly.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRich Felker <dalias@libc.org>
    • Shawn Lin's avatar
      Documentation: bindings: add description of phy for sdhci-of-arasan · 18e8d812
      Shawn Lin authored
      This patch adds phys and phy-names for sdhci-of-arasan as required
      properties for arasan,sdhci-5.1, and details the example as well.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarShawn Lin <shawn.lin@rock-chips.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarRob Herring <robh@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarUlf Hansson <ulf.hansson@linaro.org>
  8. 16 Mar, 2016 10 commits
  9. 15 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Vitaly Kuznetsov's avatar
      memory-hotplug: add automatic onlining policy for the newly added memory · 31bc3858
      Vitaly Kuznetsov authored
      Currently, all newly added memory blocks remain in 'offline' state
      unless someone onlines them, some linux distributions carry special udev
      rules like:
        SUBSYSTEM=="memory", ACTION=="add", ATTR{state}=="offline", ATTR{state}="online"
      to make this happen automatically.  This is not a great solution for
      virtual machines where memory hotplug is being used to address high
      memory pressure situations as such onlining is slow and a userspace
      process doing this (udev) has a chance of being killed by the OOM killer
      as it will probably require to allocate some memory.
      Introduce default policy for the newly added memory blocks in
      /sys/devices/system/memory/auto_online_blocks file with two possible
      values: "offline" which preserves the current behavior and "online"
      which causes all newly added memory blocks to go online as soon as
      they're added.  The default is "offline".
      Signed-off-by: default avatarVitaly Kuznetsov <vkuznets@redhat.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarDaniel Kiper <daniel.kiper@oracle.com>
      Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
      Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      Cc: Daniel Kiper <daniel.kiper@oracle.com>
      Cc: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
      Cc: Tang Chen <tangchen@cn.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: David Vrabel <david.vrabel@citrix.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarDavid Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com>
      Cc: Xishi Qiu <qiuxishi@huawei.com>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
      Cc: "K. Y. Srinivasan" <kys@microsoft.com>
      Cc: Igor Mammedov <imammedo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Kay Sievers <kay@vrfy.org>
      Cc: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>
      Cc: Boris Ostrovsky <boris.ostrovsky@oracle.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>