Commit 8e2a4397 authored by Paul E. McKenney's avatar Paul E. McKenney
Browse files

doc: Update stallwarn.txt to make causes more prominent



This commit rearranges the Documentation/RCU/stallwarn.txt file to
put the list of issues that can cause RCU CPU stall warnings near
the beginning of the document.
Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
parent b4553f0c
Using RCU's CPU Stall Detector
The rcu_cpu_stall_suppress module parameter enables RCU's CPU stall
detector, which detects conditions that unduly delay RCU grace periods.
This module parameter enables CPU stall detection by default, but
may be overridden via boot-time parameter or at runtime via sysfs.
This document first discusses what sorts of issues RCU's CPU stall
detector can locate, and then discusses kernel parameters and Kconfig
options that can be used to fine-tune the detector's operation. Finally,
this document explains the stall detector's "splat" format.
What Causes RCU CPU Stall Warnings?
So your kernel printed an RCU CPU stall warning. The next question is
"What caused it?" The following problems can result in RCU CPU stall
warnings:
o A CPU looping in an RCU read-side critical section.
o A CPU looping with interrupts disabled.
o A CPU looping with preemption disabled. This condition can
result in RCU-sched stalls and, if ksoftirqd is in use, RCU-bh
stalls.
o A CPU looping with bottom halves disabled. This condition can
result in RCU-sched and RCU-bh stalls.
o For !CONFIG_PREEMPT kernels, a CPU looping anywhere in the
kernel without invoking schedule(). Note that cond_resched()
does not necessarily prevent RCU CPU stall warnings. Therefore,
if the looping in the kernel is really expected and desirable
behavior, you might need to replace some of the cond_resched()
calls with calls to cond_resched_rcu_qs().
o Booting Linux using a console connection that is too slow to
keep up with the boot-time console-message rate. For example,
a 115Kbaud serial console can be -way- too slow to keep up
with boot-time message rates, and will frequently result in
RCU CPU stall warning messages. Especially if you have added
debug printk()s.
o Anything that prevents RCU's grace-period kthreads from running.
This can result in the "All QSes seen" console-log message.
This message will include information on when the kthread last
ran and how often it should be expected to run.
o A CPU-bound real-time task in a CONFIG_PREEMPT kernel, which might
happen to preempt a low-priority task in the middle of an RCU
read-side critical section. This is especially damaging if
that low-priority task is not permitted to run on any other CPU,
in which case the next RCU grace period can never complete, which
will eventually cause the system to run out of memory and hang.
While the system is in the process of running itself out of
memory, you might see stall-warning messages.
o A CPU-bound real-time task in a CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT kernel that
is running at a higher priority than the RCU softirq threads.
This will prevent RCU callbacks from ever being invoked,
and in a CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU kernel will further prevent
RCU grace periods from ever completing. Either way, the
system will eventually run out of memory and hang. In the
CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU case, you might see stall-warning
messages.
o A hardware or software issue shuts off the scheduler-clock
interrupt on a CPU that is not in dyntick-idle mode. This
problem really has happened, and seems to be most likely to
result in RCU CPU stall warnings for CONFIG_NO_HZ_COMMON=n kernels.
o A bug in the RCU implementation.
o A hardware failure. This is quite unlikely, but has occurred
at least once in real life. A CPU failed in a running system,
becoming unresponsive, but not causing an immediate crash.
This resulted in a series of RCU CPU stall warnings, eventually
leading the realization that the CPU had failed.
The RCU, RCU-sched, RCU-bh, and RCU-tasks implementations have CPU stall
warning. Note that SRCU does -not- have CPU stall warnings. Please note
that RCU only detects CPU stalls when there is a grace period in progress.
No grace period, no CPU stall warnings.
To diagnose the cause of the stall, inspect the stack traces.
The offending function will usually be near the top of the stack.
If you have a series of stall warnings from a single extended stall,
comparing the stack traces can often help determine where the stall
is occurring, which will usually be in the function nearest the top of
that portion of the stack which remains the same from trace to trace.
If you can reliably trigger the stall, ftrace can be quite helpful.
RCU bugs can often be debugged with the help of CONFIG_RCU_TRACE
and with RCU's event tracing. For information on RCU's event tracing,
see include/trace/events/rcu.h.
Fine-Tuning the RCU CPU Stall Detector
The rcuupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress module parameter disables RCU's
CPU stall detector, which detects conditions that unduly delay RCU grace
periods. This module parameter enables CPU stall detection by default,
but may be overridden via boot-time parameter or at runtime via sysfs.
The stall detector's idea of what constitutes "unduly delayed" is
controlled by a set of kernel configuration variables and cpp macros:
......@@ -56,6 +149,9 @@ rcupdate.rcu_task_stall_timeout
And continues with the output of sched_show_task() for each
task stalling the current RCU-tasks grace period.
Interpreting RCU's CPU Stall-Detector "Splats"
For non-RCU-tasks flavors of RCU, when a CPU detects that it is stalling,
it will print a message similar to the following:
......@@ -178,89 +274,3 @@ grace period is in flight.
It is entirely possible to see stall warnings from normal and from
expedited grace periods at about the same time from the same run.
What Causes RCU CPU Stall Warnings?
So your kernel printed an RCU CPU stall warning. The next question is
"What caused it?" The following problems can result in RCU CPU stall
warnings:
o A CPU looping in an RCU read-side critical section.
o A CPU looping with interrupts disabled. This condition can
result in RCU-sched and RCU-bh stalls.
o A CPU looping with preemption disabled. This condition can
result in RCU-sched stalls and, if ksoftirqd is in use, RCU-bh
stalls.
o A CPU looping with bottom halves disabled. This condition can
result in RCU-sched and RCU-bh stalls.
o For !CONFIG_PREEMPT kernels, a CPU looping anywhere in the
kernel without invoking schedule(). Note that cond_resched()
does not necessarily prevent RCU CPU stall warnings. Therefore,
if the looping in the kernel is really expected and desirable
behavior, you might need to replace some of the cond_resched()
calls with calls to cond_resched_rcu_qs().
o Booting Linux using a console connection that is too slow to
keep up with the boot-time console-message rate. For example,
a 115Kbaud serial console can be -way- too slow to keep up
with boot-time message rates, and will frequently result in
RCU CPU stall warning messages. Especially if you have added
debug printk()s.
o Anything that prevents RCU's grace-period kthreads from running.
This can result in the "All QSes seen" console-log message.
This message will include information on when the kthread last
ran and how often it should be expected to run.
o A CPU-bound real-time task in a CONFIG_PREEMPT kernel, which might
happen to preempt a low-priority task in the middle of an RCU
read-side critical section. This is especially damaging if
that low-priority task is not permitted to run on any other CPU,
in which case the next RCU grace period can never complete, which
will eventually cause the system to run out of memory and hang.
While the system is in the process of running itself out of
memory, you might see stall-warning messages.
o A CPU-bound real-time task in a CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT kernel that
is running at a higher priority than the RCU softirq threads.
This will prevent RCU callbacks from ever being invoked,
and in a CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU kernel will further prevent
RCU grace periods from ever completing. Either way, the
system will eventually run out of memory and hang. In the
CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU case, you might see stall-warning
messages.
o A hardware or software issue shuts off the scheduler-clock
interrupt on a CPU that is not in dyntick-idle mode. This
problem really has happened, and seems to be most likely to
result in RCU CPU stall warnings for CONFIG_NO_HZ_COMMON=n kernels.
o A bug in the RCU implementation.
o A hardware failure. This is quite unlikely, but has occurred
at least once in real life. A CPU failed in a running system,
becoming unresponsive, but not causing an immediate crash.
This resulted in a series of RCU CPU stall warnings, eventually
leading the realization that the CPU had failed.
The RCU, RCU-sched, RCU-bh, and RCU-tasks implementations have CPU stall
warning. Note that SRCU does -not- have CPU stall warnings. Please note
that RCU only detects CPU stalls when there is a grace period in progress.
No grace period, no CPU stall warnings.
To diagnose the cause of the stall, inspect the stack traces.
The offending function will usually be near the top of the stack.
If you have a series of stall warnings from a single extended stall,
comparing the stack traces can often help determine where the stall
is occurring, which will usually be in the function nearest the top of
that portion of the stack which remains the same from trace to trace.
If you can reliably trigger the stall, ftrace can be quite helpful.
RCU bugs can often be debugged with the help of CONFIG_RCU_TRACE
and with RCU's event tracing. For information on RCU's event tracing,
see include/trace/events/rcu.h.
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