1. 31 Jul, 2008 1 commit
    • David Miller's avatar
      lockdep: fix combinatorial explosion in lock subgraph traversal · 419ca3f1
      David Miller authored
      
      
      When we traverse the graph, either forwards or backwards, we
      are interested in whether a certain property exists somewhere
      in a node reachable in the graph.
      
      Therefore it is never necessary to traverse through a node more
      than once to get a correct answer to the given query.
      
      Take advantage of this property using a global ID counter so that we
      need not clear all the markers in all the lock_class entries before
      doing a traversal.  A new ID is choosen when we start to traverse, and
      we continue through a lock_class only if it's ID hasn't been marked
      with the new value yet.
      
      This short-circuiting is essential especially for high CPU count
      systems.  The scheduler has a runqueue per cpu, and needs to take
      two runqueue locks at a time, which leads to long chains of
      backwards and forwards subgraphs from these runqueue lock nodes.
      Without the short-circuit implemented here, a graph traversal on
      a runqueue lock can take up to (1 << (N - 1)) checks on a system
      with N cpus.
      
      For anything more than 16 cpus or so, lockdep will eventually bring
      the machine to a complete standstill.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
      Acked-by: default avatarPeter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      419ca3f1
  2. 23 Jun, 2008 1 commit
  3. 20 Jun, 2008 1 commit
  4. 07 Dec, 2006 1 commit
  5. 13 Sep, 2006 1 commit
  6. 03 Jul, 2006 1 commit
    • Ingo Molnar's avatar
      [PATCH] lockdep: core · fbb9ce95
      Ingo Molnar authored
      Do 'make oldconfig' and accept all the defaults for new config options -
      reboot into the kernel and if everything goes well it should boot up fine and
      you should have /proc/lockdep and /proc/lockdep_stats files.
      
      Typically if the lock validator finds some problem it will print out
      voluminous debug output that begins with "BUG: ..." and which syslog output
      can be used by kernel developers to figure out the precise locking scenario.
      
      What does the lock validator do?  It "observes" and maps all locking rules as
      they occur dynamically (as triggered by the kernel's natural use of spinlocks,
      rwlocks, mutexes and rwsems).  Whenever the lock validator subsystem detects a
      new locking scenario, it validates this new rule against the existing set of
      rules.  If this new rule is consistent with the existing set of rules then the
      new rule is added transparently and the kernel continues as normal.  If the
      new rule could create a deadlock scenario then this condition is printed out.
      
      When determining validity of locking, all possible "deadlock scenarios" are
      considered: assuming arbitrary number of CPUs, arbitrary irq context and task
      context constellations, running arbitrary combinations of all the existing
      locking scenarios.  In a typical system this means millions of separate
      scenarios.  This is why we call it a "locking correctness" validator - for all
      rules that are observed the lock validator proves it with mathematical
      certainty that a deadlock could not occur (assuming that the lock validator
      implementation itself is correct and its internal data structures are not
      corrupted by some other kernel subsystem).  [see more details and conditionals
      of this statement in include/linux/lockdep.h and
      Documentation/lockdep-design.txt]
      
      Furthermore, this "all possible scenarios" property of the validator also
      enables the finding of complex, highly unlikely multi-CPU multi-context races
      via single single-context rules, increasing the likelyhood of finding bugs
      drastically.  In practical terms: the lock validator already found a bug in
      the upstream kernel that could only occur on systems with 3 or more CPUs, and
      which needed 3 very unlikely code sequences to occur at once on the 3 CPUs.
      That bug was found and reported on a single-CPU system (!).  So in essence a
      race will be found "piecemail-wise", triggering all the necessary components
      for the race, without having to reproduce the race scenario itself!  In its
      short existence the lock validator found and reported many bugs before they
      actually caused a real deadlock.
      
      To further increase the efficiency of the validator, the mapping is not per
      "lock instance", but per "lock-class".  For example, all struct inode objects
      in the kernel have inode->inotify_mutex.  If there are 10,000 inodes cached,
      then there are 10,000 lock objects.  But ->inotify_mutex is a single "lock
      type", and all locking activities that occur against ->inotify_mutex are
      "unified" into this single lock-class.  The advantage of the lock-class
      approach is that all historical ->inotify_mutex uses are mapped into a single
      (and as narrow as possible) set of locking rules - regardless of how many
      different tasks or inode structures it took to build this set of rules.  The
      set of rules persist during the lifetime of the kernel.
      
      To see the rough magnitude of checking that the lock validator does, here's a
      portion of /proc/lockdep_stats, fresh after bootup:
      
       lock-classes:                            694 [max: 2048]
       direct dependencies:                  1598 [max: 8192]
       indirect dependencies:               17896
       all direct dependencies:             16206
       dependency chains:                    1910 [max: 8192]
       in-hardirq chains:                      17
       in-softirq chains:                     105
       in-process chains:                    1065
       stack-trace entries:                 38761 [max: 131072]
       combined max dependencies:         2033928
       hardirq-safe locks:                     24
       hardirq-unsafe locks:                  176
       softirq-safe locks:                     53
       softirq-unsafe locks:                  137
       irq-safe locks:                         59
       irq-unsafe locks:                      176
      
      The lock validator has observed 1598 actual single-thread locking patterns,
      and has validated all possible 2033928 distinct locking scenarios.
      
      More details about the design of the lock validator can be found in
      Documentation/lockdep-design.txt, which can also found at:
      
         http://redhat.com/~mingo/lockdep-patches/lockdep-design.txt
      
      
      
      [bunk@stusta.de: cleanups]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarArjan van de Ven <arjan@linux.intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAdrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
      fbb9ce95