Commit cb97ad64 authored by Daniel Lezcano's avatar Daniel Lezcano Committed by Angus Ainslie (Purism)
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thermal/drivers/cpu_cooling: Add idle cooling device documentation

Provide some documentation for the idle injection cooling effect in
order to let people to understand the rational of the approach for the
idle injection CPU cooling device.
Signed-off-by: default avatarDaniel Lezcano <>
parent 4f60aa29
Under certain circumstances a SoC can reach the maximum temperature
limit or is unable to stabilize the temperature around a temperature
control. When the SoC has to stabilize the temperature, the kernel can
act on a cooling device to mitigate the dissipated power. When the
maximum temperature is reached and to prevent a reboot or a shutdown,
a decision must be taken to reduce the temperature under the critical
threshold, that impacts the performance.
Another situation is when the silicon reaches a certain temperature
which continues to increase even if the dynamic leakage is reduced to
its minimum by clock gating the component. The runaway phenomena will
continue with the static leakage and only powering down the component,
thus dropping the dynamic and static leakage will allow the component
to cool down.
Last but not least, the system can ask for a specific power budget but
because of the OPP density, we can only choose an OPP with a power
budget lower than the requested one and underuse the CPU, thus losing
performances. In other words, one OPP under uses the CPU with a power
lesser than the power budget and the next OPP exceed the power budget,
an intermediate OPP could have been used if it were present.
If we can remove the static and the dynamic leakage for a specific
duration in a controlled period, the SoC temperature will
decrease. Acting at the idle state duration or the idle cycle
injection period, we can mitigate the temperature by modulating the
power budget.
The Operating Performance Point (OPP) density has a great influence on
the control precision of cpufreq, however different vendors have a
plethora of OPP density, and some have large power gap between OPPs,
that will result in loss of performance during thermal control and
loss of power in other scenes.
At a specific OPP, we can assume injecting idle cycle on all CPUs,
belonging to the same cluster, with a duration greater than the
cluster idle state target residency, we drop the static and the
dynamic leakage for this period (modulo the energy needed to enter
this state). So the sustainable power with idle cycles has a linear
relation with the OPP’s sustainable power and can be computed with a
coefficient similar to:
Power(IdleCycle) = Coef x Power(OPP)
Idle Injection:
The base concept of the idle injection is to force the CPU to go to an
idle state for a specified time each control cycle, it provides
another way to control CPU power and heat in addition to
cpufreq. Ideally, if all CPUs belonging to the same cluster, inject
their idle cycle synchronously, the cluster can reach its power down
state with a minimum power consumption and static leakage
drop. However, these idle cycles injection will add extra latencies as
the CPUs will have to wakeup from a deep sleep state.
|------- ------- -------
idle <---->
With the fixed idle injection duration, we can give a value which is
an acceptable performance drop off or latency when we reach a specific
temperature and we begin to mitigate by varying the Idle injection
The mitigation begins with a maximum period value which decrease when
more cooling effect is requested. When the period duration is equal to
the idle duration, then we are in a situation the platform can’t
dissipate the heat enough and the mitigation fails. In this case the
situation is considered critical and there is nothing to do. The idle
injection duration must be changed by configuration and until we reach
the cooling effect, otherwise an additionnal cooling device must be
used or ultimately decrease the SoC performance by dropping the
highest OPP point of the SoC.
The idle injection duration value must comply with the constraints:
- It is lesser or equal to the latency we tolerate when the mitigation
begins. It is platform dependent and will depend on the user
experience, reactivity vs performance trade off we want. This value
should be specified.
- It is greater than the idle state’s target residency we want to go
for thermal mitigation, otherwise we end up consuming more energy.
Minimum period
The idle injection duration being fixed, it is obvious the minimum
period can’t be lesser than that, otherwise we will be scheduling the
idle injection task right before the idle injection duration is
complete, so waking up the CPU to put it asleep again.
Maximum period
The maximum period is the initial period when the mitigation
begins. Theoretically when we reach the thermal trip point, we have to
sustain a specified power for specific temperature but at this time we
Power = Capacitance x Voltage^2 x Frequency x Utilisation
... which is more than the sustainable power (or there is something
wrong on the system setup). The ‘Capacitance’ and ‘Utilisation’ are a
fixed value, ‘Voltage’ and the ‘Frequency’ are fixed artificially
because we don’t want to change the OPP. We can group the
‘Capacitance’ and the ‘Utilisation’ into a single term which is the
‘Dynamic Power Coefficient (Cdyn)’ Simplifying the above, we have:
Pdyn = Cdyn x Voltage^2 x Frequency
The IPA will ask us somehow to reduce our power in order to target the
sustainable power defined in the device tree. So with the idle
injection mechanism, we want an average power (Ptarget) resulting on
an amount of time running at full power on a specific OPP and idle
another amount of time. That could be put in a equation:
P(opp)target = ((trunning x (P(opp)running) + (tidle P(opp)idle)) /
(trunning + tidle)
tidle = trunning x ((P(opp)running / P(opp)target) - 1)
At this point if we know the running period for the CPU, that gives us
the idle injection, we need. Alternatively if we have the idle
injection duration, we can compute the running duration with:
trunning = tidle / ((P(opp)running / P(opp)target) - 1)
Practically, if the running power is lesses than the targeted power,
we end up with a negative time value, so obviously the equation usage
is bound to a power reduction, hence a higher OPP is needed to have
the running power greater than the targeted power.
However, in this demonstration we ignore three aspects:
* The static leakage is not defined here, we can introduce it in the
equation but assuming it will be zero most of the time as it is
difficult to get the values from the SoC vendors
* The idle state wake up latency (or entry + exit latency) is not
taken into account, it must be added in the equation in order to
rigorously compute the idle injection
* The injected idle duration must be greater than the idle state
target residency, otherwise we end up consuming more energy and
potentially invert the mitigation effect
So the final equation is:
trunning = (tidle - twakeup ) x
(((P(opp)dyn + P(opp)static ) - P(opp)target) / P(opp)target )
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