savevm.c 64 KB
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/*
 * QEMU System Emulator
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
 * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

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#include "config-host.h"
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#include "qemu-common.h"
#include "hw/hw.h"
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#include "hw/qdev.h"
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#include "net/net.h"
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#include "monitor/monitor.h"
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#include "sysemu/sysemu.h"
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#include "qemu/timer.h"
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#include "audio/audio.h"
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#include "migration/migration.h"
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#include "qemu/sockets.h"
#include "qemu/queue.h"
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#include "sysemu/cpus.h"
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#include "exec/memory.h"
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#include "qmp-commands.h"
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#include "trace.h"
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#include "qemu/bitops.h"
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#include "qemu/iov.h"
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#include "block/snapshot.h"
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#include "block/qapi.h"
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#define SELF_ANNOUNCE_ROUNDS 5

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#ifndef ETH_P_RARP
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#define ETH_P_RARP 0x8035
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#endif
#define ARP_HTYPE_ETH 0x0001
#define ARP_PTYPE_IP 0x0800
#define ARP_OP_REQUEST_REV 0x3

static int announce_self_create(uint8_t *buf,
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				uint8_t *mac_addr)
{
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    /* Ethernet header. */
    memset(buf, 0xff, 6);         /* destination MAC addr */
    memcpy(buf + 6, mac_addr, 6); /* source MAC addr */
    *(uint16_t *)(buf + 12) = htons(ETH_P_RARP); /* ethertype */

    /* RARP header. */
    *(uint16_t *)(buf + 14) = htons(ARP_HTYPE_ETH); /* hardware addr space */
    *(uint16_t *)(buf + 16) = htons(ARP_PTYPE_IP); /* protocol addr space */
    *(buf + 18) = 6; /* hardware addr length (ethernet) */
    *(buf + 19) = 4; /* protocol addr length (IPv4) */
    *(uint16_t *)(buf + 20) = htons(ARP_OP_REQUEST_REV); /* opcode */
    memcpy(buf + 22, mac_addr, 6); /* source hw addr */
    memset(buf + 28, 0x00, 4);     /* source protocol addr */
    memcpy(buf + 32, mac_addr, 6); /* target hw addr */
    memset(buf + 38, 0x00, 4);     /* target protocol addr */

    /* Padding to get up to 60 bytes (ethernet min packet size, minus FCS). */
    memset(buf + 42, 0x00, 18);

    return 60; /* len (FCS will be added by hardware) */
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}

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static void qemu_announce_self_iter(NICState *nic, void *opaque)
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{
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    uint8_t buf[60];
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    int len;

    len = announce_self_create(buf, nic->conf->macaddr.a);

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    qemu_send_packet_raw(qemu_get_queue(nic), buf, len);
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}


static void qemu_announce_self_once(void *opaque)
{
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    static int count = SELF_ANNOUNCE_ROUNDS;
    QEMUTimer *timer = *(QEMUTimer **)opaque;
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    qemu_foreach_nic(qemu_announce_self_iter, NULL);

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    if (--count) {
        /* delay 50ms, 150ms, 250ms, ... */
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        qemu_mod_timer(timer, qemu_get_clock_ms(rt_clock) +
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                       50 + (SELF_ANNOUNCE_ROUNDS - count - 1) * 100);
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    } else {
	    qemu_del_timer(timer);
	    qemu_free_timer(timer);
    }
}

void qemu_announce_self(void)
{
	static QEMUTimer *timer;
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	timer = qemu_new_timer_ms(rt_clock, qemu_announce_self_once, &timer);
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	qemu_announce_self_once(&timer);
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}

/***********************************************************/
/* savevm/loadvm support */

#define IO_BUF_SIZE 32768
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#define MAX_IOV_SIZE MIN(IOV_MAX, 64)
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struct QEMUFile {
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    const QEMUFileOps *ops;
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    void *opaque;

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    int64_t bytes_xfer;
    int64_t xfer_limit;

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    int64_t pos; /* start of buffer when writing, end of buffer
                    when reading */
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    int buf_index;
    int buf_size; /* 0 when writing */
    uint8_t buf[IO_BUF_SIZE];

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    struct iovec iov[MAX_IOV_SIZE];
    unsigned int iovcnt;

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    int last_error;
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};

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typedef struct QEMUFileStdio
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{
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    FILE *stdio_file;
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    QEMUFile *file;
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} QEMUFileStdio;
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typedef struct QEMUFileSocket
{
    int fd;
    QEMUFile *file;
} QEMUFileSocket;

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typedef struct {
    Coroutine *co;
    int fd;
} FDYieldUntilData;

static void fd_coroutine_enter(void *opaque)
{
    FDYieldUntilData *data = opaque;
    qemu_set_fd_handler(data->fd, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    qemu_coroutine_enter(data->co, NULL);
}

/**
 * Yield until a file descriptor becomes readable
 *
 * Note that this function clobbers the handlers for the file descriptor.
 */
static void coroutine_fn yield_until_fd_readable(int fd)
{
    FDYieldUntilData data;

    assert(qemu_in_coroutine());
    data.co = qemu_coroutine_self();
    data.fd = fd;
    qemu_set_fd_handler(fd, fd_coroutine_enter, NULL, &data);
    qemu_coroutine_yield();
}

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static ssize_t socket_writev_buffer(void *opaque, struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt,
                                    int64_t pos)
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{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
    ssize_t len;
    ssize_t size = iov_size(iov, iovcnt);

    len = iov_send(s->fd, iov, iovcnt, 0, size);
    if (len < size) {
        len = -socket_error();
    }
    return len;
}

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static int socket_get_fd(void *opaque)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;

    return s->fd;
}

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static int socket_get_buffer(void *opaque, uint8_t *buf, int64_t pos, int size)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
    ssize_t len;

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    for (;;) {
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        len = qemu_recv(s->fd, buf, size, 0);
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        if (len != -1) {
            break;
        }
        if (socket_error() == EAGAIN) {
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            yield_until_fd_readable(s->fd);
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        } else if (socket_error() != EINTR) {
            break;
        }
    }
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    if (len == -1) {
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        len = -socket_error();
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    }
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    return len;
}

static int socket_close(void *opaque)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
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    closesocket(s->fd);
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    g_free(s);
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    return 0;
}

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static int stdio_get_fd(void *opaque)
{
    QEMUFileStdio *s = opaque;

    return fileno(s->stdio_file);
}

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static int stdio_put_buffer(void *opaque, const uint8_t *buf, int64_t pos, int size)
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{
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    QEMUFileStdio *s = opaque;
    return fwrite(buf, 1, size, s->stdio_file);
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}

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static int stdio_get_buffer(void *opaque, uint8_t *buf, int64_t pos, int size)
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{
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    QEMUFileStdio *s = opaque;
    FILE *fp = s->stdio_file;
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    int bytes;

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    for (;;) {
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        clearerr(fp);
        bytes = fread(buf, 1, size, fp);
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        if (bytes != 0 || !ferror(fp)) {
            break;
        }
        if (errno == EAGAIN) {
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            yield_until_fd_readable(fileno(fp));
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        } else if (errno != EINTR) {
            break;
        }
    }
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    return bytes;
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}

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static int stdio_pclose(void *opaque)
{
    QEMUFileStdio *s = opaque;
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    int ret;
    ret = pclose(s->stdio_file);
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    if (ret == -1) {
        ret = -errno;
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    } else if (!WIFEXITED(ret) || WEXITSTATUS(ret) != 0) {
        /* close succeeded, but non-zero exit code: */
        ret = -EIO; /* fake errno value */
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    }
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    g_free(s);
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    return ret;
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}

static int stdio_fclose(void *opaque)
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{
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    QEMUFileStdio *s = opaque;
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    int ret = 0;
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    if (s->file->ops->put_buffer || s->file->ops->writev_buffer) {
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        int fd = fileno(s->stdio_file);
        struct stat st;

        ret = fstat(fd, &st);
        if (ret == 0 && S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
            /*
             * If the file handle is a regular file make sure the
             * data is flushed to disk before signaling success.
             */
            ret = fsync(fd);
            if (ret != 0) {
                ret = -errno;
                return ret;
            }
        }
    }
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    if (fclose(s->stdio_file) == EOF) {
        ret = -errno;
    }
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    g_free(s);
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    return ret;
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}

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static const QEMUFileOps stdio_pipe_read_ops = {
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    .get_fd =     stdio_get_fd,
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    .get_buffer = stdio_get_buffer,
    .close =      stdio_pclose
};

static const QEMUFileOps stdio_pipe_write_ops = {
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    .get_fd =     stdio_get_fd,
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    .put_buffer = stdio_put_buffer,
    .close =      stdio_pclose
};

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QEMUFile *qemu_popen_cmd(const char *command, const char *mode)
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{
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    FILE *stdio_file;
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    QEMUFileStdio *s;
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    if (mode == NULL || (mode[0] != 'r' && mode[0] != 'w') || mode[1] != 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "qemu_popen: Argument validity check failed\n");
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        return NULL;
    }

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    stdio_file = popen(command, mode);
    if (stdio_file == NULL) {
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        return NULL;
    }

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    s = g_malloc0(sizeof(QEMUFileStdio));
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    s->stdio_file = stdio_file;
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    if(mode[0] == 'r') {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &stdio_pipe_read_ops);
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    } else {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &stdio_pipe_write_ops);
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    }
    return s->file;
}

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static const QEMUFileOps stdio_file_read_ops = {
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    .get_fd =     stdio_get_fd,
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    .get_buffer = stdio_get_buffer,
    .close =      stdio_fclose
};

static const QEMUFileOps stdio_file_write_ops = {
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    .get_fd =     stdio_get_fd,
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    .put_buffer = stdio_put_buffer,
    .close =      stdio_fclose
};

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static ssize_t unix_writev_buffer(void *opaque, struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt,
                                  int64_t pos)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
    ssize_t len, offset;
    ssize_t size = iov_size(iov, iovcnt);
    ssize_t total = 0;

    assert(iovcnt > 0);
    offset = 0;
    while (size > 0) {
        /* Find the next start position; skip all full-sized vector elements  */
        while (offset >= iov[0].iov_len) {
            offset -= iov[0].iov_len;
            iov++, iovcnt--;
        }

        /* skip `offset' bytes from the (now) first element, undo it on exit */
        assert(iovcnt > 0);
        iov[0].iov_base += offset;
        iov[0].iov_len -= offset;

        do {
            len = writev(s->fd, iov, iovcnt);
        } while (len == -1 && errno == EINTR);
        if (len == -1) {
            return -errno;
        }

        /* Undo the changes above */
        iov[0].iov_base -= offset;
        iov[0].iov_len += offset;

        /* Prepare for the next iteration */
        offset += len;
        total += len;
        size -= len;
    }

    return total;
}

static int unix_get_buffer(void *opaque, uint8_t *buf, int64_t pos, int size)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
    ssize_t len;

    for (;;) {
        len = read(s->fd, buf, size);
        if (len != -1) {
            break;
        }
        if (errno == EAGAIN) {
            yield_until_fd_readable(s->fd);
        } else if (errno != EINTR) {
            break;
        }
    }

    if (len == -1) {
        len = -errno;
    }
    return len;
}

static int unix_close(void *opaque)
{
    QEMUFileSocket *s = opaque;
    close(s->fd);
    g_free(s);
    return 0;
}

static const QEMUFileOps unix_read_ops = {
    .get_fd =     socket_get_fd,
    .get_buffer = unix_get_buffer,
    .close =      unix_close
};

static const QEMUFileOps unix_write_ops = {
    .get_fd =     socket_get_fd,
    .writev_buffer = unix_writev_buffer,
    .close =      unix_close
};

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QEMUFile *qemu_fdopen(int fd, const char *mode)
{
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    QEMUFileSocket *s;
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    if (mode == NULL ||
	(mode[0] != 'r' && mode[0] != 'w') ||
	mode[1] != 'b' || mode[2] != 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "qemu_fdopen: Argument validity check failed\n");
        return NULL;
    }

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    s = g_malloc0(sizeof(QEMUFileSocket));
    s->fd = fd;
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    if(mode[0] == 'r') {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &unix_read_ops);
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    } else {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &unix_write_ops);
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    }
    return s->file;
}

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static const QEMUFileOps socket_read_ops = {
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    .get_fd =     socket_get_fd,
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    .get_buffer = socket_get_buffer,
    .close =      socket_close
};

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static const QEMUFileOps socket_write_ops = {
    .get_fd =     socket_get_fd,
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    .writev_buffer = socket_writev_buffer,
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    .close =      socket_close
};

QEMUFile *qemu_fopen_socket(int fd, const char *mode)
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{
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    QEMUFileSocket *s;
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    if (mode == NULL ||
        (mode[0] != 'r' && mode[0] != 'w') ||
        mode[1] != 'b' || mode[2] != 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "qemu_fopen: Argument validity check failed\n");
        return NULL;
    }

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    s = g_malloc0(sizeof(QEMUFileSocket));
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    s->fd = fd;
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    if (mode[0] == 'w') {
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        qemu_set_block(s->fd);
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &socket_write_ops);
    } else {
        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &socket_read_ops);
    }
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    return s->file;
}

QEMUFile *qemu_fopen(const char *filename, const char *mode)
{
    QEMUFileStdio *s;

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    if (mode == NULL ||
	(mode[0] != 'r' && mode[0] != 'w') ||
	mode[1] != 'b' || mode[2] != 0) {
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        fprintf(stderr, "qemu_fopen: Argument validity check failed\n");
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        return NULL;
    }

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    s = g_malloc0(sizeof(QEMUFileStdio));
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    s->stdio_file = fopen(filename, mode);
    if (!s->stdio_file)
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        goto fail;
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    if(mode[0] == 'w') {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &stdio_file_write_ops);
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    } else {
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        s->file = qemu_fopen_ops(s, &stdio_file_read_ops);
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    }
    return s->file;
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fail:
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    g_free(s);
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    return NULL;
}

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static ssize_t block_writev_buffer(void *opaque, struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt,
                                   int64_t pos)
{
    int ret;
    QEMUIOVector qiov;

    qemu_iovec_init_external(&qiov, iov, iovcnt);
    ret = bdrv_writev_vmstate(opaque, &qiov, pos);
    if (ret < 0) {
        return ret;
    }

    return qiov.size;
}

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static int block_put_buffer(void *opaque, const uint8_t *buf,
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                           int64_t pos, int size)
{
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    bdrv_save_vmstate(opaque, buf, pos, size);
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    return size;
}

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static int block_get_buffer(void *opaque, uint8_t *buf, int64_t pos, int size)
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{
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    return bdrv_load_vmstate(opaque, buf, pos, size);
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}

static int bdrv_fclose(void *opaque)
{
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    return bdrv_flush(opaque);
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}

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static const QEMUFileOps bdrv_read_ops = {
    .get_buffer = block_get_buffer,
    .close =      bdrv_fclose
};

static const QEMUFileOps bdrv_write_ops = {
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    .put_buffer     = block_put_buffer,
    .writev_buffer  = block_writev_buffer,
    .close          = bdrv_fclose
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};

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static QEMUFile *qemu_fopen_bdrv(BlockDriverState *bs, int is_writable)
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{
    if (is_writable)
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        return qemu_fopen_ops(bs, &bdrv_write_ops);
    return qemu_fopen_ops(bs, &bdrv_read_ops);
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}

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QEMUFile *qemu_fopen_ops(void *opaque, const QEMUFileOps *ops)
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{
    QEMUFile *f;

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    f = g_malloc0(sizeof(QEMUFile));
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    f->opaque = opaque;
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    f->ops = ops;
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    return f;
}

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int qemu_file_get_error(QEMUFile *f)
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{
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    return f->last_error;
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}

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static void qemu_file_set_error(QEMUFile *f, int ret)
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{
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    if (f->last_error == 0) {
        f->last_error = ret;
    }
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}

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static inline bool qemu_file_is_writable(QEMUFile *f)
{
    return f->ops->writev_buffer || f->ops->put_buffer;
}

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/**
 * Flushes QEMUFile buffer
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 *
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 * If there is writev_buffer QEMUFileOps it uses it otherwise uses
 * put_buffer ops.
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 */
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static void qemu_fflush(QEMUFile *f)
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{
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    ssize_t ret = 0;
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    if (!qemu_file_is_writable(f)) {
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        return;
    }
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    if (f->ops->writev_buffer) {
        if (f->iovcnt > 0) {
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            ret = f->ops->writev_buffer(f->opaque, f->iov, f->iovcnt, f->pos);
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        }
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    } else {
        if (f->buf_index > 0) {
            ret = f->ops->put_buffer(f->opaque, f->buf, f->pos, f->buf_index);
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        }
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    }
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    if (ret >= 0) {
        f->pos += ret;
    }
    f->buf_index = 0;
    f->iovcnt = 0;
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    if (ret < 0) {
        qemu_file_set_error(f, ret);
    }
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}

static void qemu_fill_buffer(QEMUFile *f)
{
    int len;
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    int pending;
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    assert(!qemu_file_is_writable(f));
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    pending = f->buf_size - f->buf_index;
    if (pending > 0) {
        memmove(f->buf, f->buf + f->buf_index, pending);
    }
    f->buf_index = 0;
    f->buf_size = pending;

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    len = f->ops->get_buffer(f->opaque, f->buf + pending, f->pos,
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                        IO_BUF_SIZE - pending);
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    if (len > 0) {
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        f->buf_size += len;
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        f->pos += len;
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    } else if (len == 0) {
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        qemu_file_set_error(f, -EIO);
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    } else if (len != -EAGAIN)
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        qemu_file_set_error(f, len);
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}

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int qemu_get_fd(QEMUFile *f)
{
    if (f->ops->get_fd) {
        return f->ops->get_fd(f->opaque);
    }
    return -1;
}

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/** Closes the file
 *
 * Returns negative error value if any error happened on previous operations or
 * while closing the file. Returns 0 or positive number on success.
 *
 * The meaning of return value on success depends on the specific backend
 * being used.
 */
int qemu_fclose(QEMUFile *f)
{
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    int ret;
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    qemu_fflush(f);
    ret = qemu_file_get_error(f);
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    if (f->ops->close) {
        int ret2 = f->ops->close(f->opaque);
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        if (ret >= 0) {
            ret = ret2;
        }
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    }
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    /* If any error was spotted before closing, we should report it
     * instead of the close() return value.
     */
    if (f->last_error) {
        ret = f->last_error;
    }
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    g_free(f);
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    return ret;
}

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static void add_to_iovec(QEMUFile *f, const uint8_t *buf, int size)
{
    /* check for adjacent buffer and coalesce them */
    if (f->iovcnt > 0 && buf == f->iov[f->iovcnt - 1].iov_base +
        f->iov[f->iovcnt - 1].iov_len) {
        f->iov[f->iovcnt - 1].iov_len += size;
    } else {
        f->iov[f->iovcnt].iov_base = (uint8_t *)buf;
        f->iov[f->iovcnt++].iov_len = size;
    }
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    if (f->iovcnt >= MAX_IOV_SIZE) {
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        qemu_fflush(f);
    }
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}

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void qemu_put_buffer_async(QEMUFile *f, const uint8_t *buf, int size)
{
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    if (!f->ops->writev_buffer) {
        qemu_put_buffer(f, buf, size);
        return;
    }

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    if (f->last_error) {
        return;
    }

    f->bytes_xfer += size;
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    add_to_iovec(f, buf, size);
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}

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void qemu_put_buffer(QEMUFile *f, const uint8_t *buf, int size)
{
    int l;

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    if (f->last_error) {
        return;
    }

    while (size > 0) {
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        l = IO_BUF_SIZE - f->buf_index;
        if (l > size)
            l = size;
        memcpy(f->buf + f->buf_index, buf, l);
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        f->bytes_xfer += size;
        if (f->ops->writev_buffer) {
            add_to_iovec(f, f->buf + f->buf_index, l);
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        }
        f->buf_index += l;
        if (f->buf_index == IO_BUF_SIZE) {
            qemu_fflush(f);
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        }
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        if (qemu_file_get_error(f)) {
            break;
        }
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        buf += l;
        size -= l;
    }
}

void qemu_put_byte(QEMUFile *f, int v)
{
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    if (f->last_error) {
        return;
    }

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    f->buf[f->buf_index] = v;
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    f->bytes_xfer++;
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    if (f->ops->writev_buffer) {
        add_to_iovec(f, f->buf + f->buf_index, 1);
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    }
    f->buf_index++;
    if (f->buf_index == IO_BUF_SIZE) {
        qemu_fflush(f);
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    }
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}

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static void qemu_file_skip(QEMUFile *f, int size)
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{
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    if (f->buf_index + size <= f->buf_size) {
        f->buf_index += size;
    }
}

static int qemu_peek_buffer(QEMUFile *f, uint8_t *buf, int size, size_t offset)
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{
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    int pending;
    int index;
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    assert(!qemu_file_is_writable(f));
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    index = f->buf_index + offset;
    pending = f->buf_size - index;
    if (pending < size) {
        qemu_fill_buffer(f);
        index = f->buf_index + offset;
        pending = f->buf_size - index;
    }

    if (pending <= 0) {
        return 0;
    }
    if (size > pending) {
        size = pending;
    }

    memcpy(buf, f->buf + index, size);
    return size;
}

int qemu_get_buffer(QEMUFile *f, uint8_t *buf, int size)
{
    int pending = size;
    int done = 0;

    while (pending > 0) {
        int res;

        res = qemu_peek_buffer(f, buf, pending, 0);
        if (res == 0) {
            return done;
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        }
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        qemu_file_skip(f, res);
        buf += res;
        pending -= res;
        done += res;
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    }
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    return done;
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}

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static int qemu_peek_byte(QEMUFile *f, int offset)
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{
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    int index = f->buf_index + offset;

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    assert(!qemu_file_is_writable(f));
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    if (index >= f->buf_size) {
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        qemu_fill_buffer(f);
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        index = f->buf_index + offset;
        if (index >= f->buf_size) {
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            return 0;
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        }
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    }
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    return f->buf[index];
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}

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int qemu_get_byte(QEMUFile *f)
{
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    int result;
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    result = qemu_peek_byte(f, 0);
    qemu_file_skip(f, 1);
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    return result;
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}

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int64_t qemu_ftell(QEMUFile *f)
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{
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    qemu_fflush(f);
    return f->pos;
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}

int qemu_file_rate_limit(QEMUFile *f)
{
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    if (qemu_file_get_error(f)) {
        return 1;
    }
    if (f->xfer_limit > 0 && f->bytes_xfer > f->xfer_limit) {
        return 1;
    }
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    return 0;
}

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int64_t qemu_file_get_rate_limit(QEMUFile *f)
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{
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    return f->xfer_limit;
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}

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void qemu_file_set_rate_limit(QEMUFile *f, int64_t limit)
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{
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    f->xfer_limit = limit;
}
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void qemu_file_reset_rate_limit(QEMUFile *f)
{
    f->bytes_xfer = 0;
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}

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void qemu_put_be16(QEMUFile *f, unsigned int v)
{
    qemu_put_byte(f, v >> 8);
    qemu_put_byte(f, v);
}

void qemu_put_be32(QEMUFile *f, unsigned int v)
{
    qemu_put_byte(f, v >> 24);
    qemu_put_byte(f, v >> 16);
    qemu_put_byte(f, v >> 8);
    qemu_put_byte(f, v);
}

void qemu_put_be64(QEMUFile *f, uint64_t v)
{
    qemu_put_be32(f, v >> 32);
    qemu_put_be32(f, v);
}

unsigned int qemu_get_be16(QEMUFile *f)
{
    unsigned int v;
    v = qemu_get_byte(f) << 8;
    v |= qemu_get_byte(f);
    return v;
}

unsigned int qemu_get_be32(QEMUFile *f)
{
    unsigned int v;
    v = qemu_get_byte(f) << 24;
    v |= qemu_get_byte(f) << 16;
    v |= qemu_get_byte(f) << 8;
    v |= qemu_get_byte(f);
    return v;
}

uint64_t qemu_get_be64(QEMUFile *f)
{
    uint64_t v;
    v = (uint64_t)qemu_get_be32(f) << 32;
    v |= qemu_get_be32(f);
    return v;
}

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/* timer */

void qemu_put_timer(QEMUFile *f, QEMUTimer *ts)
{
    uint64_t expire_time;

    expire_time = qemu_timer_expire_time_ns(ts);
    qemu_put_be64(f, expire_time);
}

void qemu_get_timer(QEMUFile *f, QEMUTimer *ts)
{
    uint64_t expire_time;

    expire_time = qemu_get_be64(f);
    if (expire_time != -1) {
        qemu_mod_timer_ns(ts, expire_time);
    } else {
        qemu_del_timer(ts);
    }
}


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/* bool */

static int get_bool(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
{
    bool *v = pv;
    *v = qemu_get_byte(f);
    return 0;
}

static void put_bool(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
{
    bool *v = pv;
    qemu_put_byte(f, *v);
}

const VMStateInfo vmstate_info_bool = {
    .name = "bool",
    .get  = get_bool,
    .put  = put_bool,
};

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/* 8 bit int */

static int get_int8(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
{
    int8_t *v = pv;
    qemu_get_s8s(f, v);
    return 0;
}

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static void put_int8(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
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{
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    int8_t *v = pv;
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    qemu_put_s8s(f, v);
}

const VMStateInfo vmstate_info_int8 = {
    .name = "int8",
    .get  = get_int8,
    .put  = put_int8,
};

/* 16 bit int */

static int get_int16(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
{
    int16_t *v = pv;
    qemu_get_sbe16s(f, v);
    return 0;
}

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static void put_int16(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
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{
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    int16_t *v = pv;
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    qemu_put_sbe16s(f, v);
}

const VMStateInfo vmstate_info_int16 = {
    .name = "int16",
    .get  = get_int16,
    .put  = put_int16,
};

/* 32 bit int */

static int get_int32(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
{
    int32_t *v = pv;
    qemu_get_sbe32s(f, v);
    return 0;
}

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static void put_int32(QEMUFile *f, void *pv, size_t size)
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{
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    int32_t *v = pv;
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